中共外交政策的形塑向來是其對國內和國際安全環境的認知。中共殷鑒近代歷史，咸認新興國家崛起無不與國內外環境相關，崛起大國凡挑戰世界強權皆以敗北收場，而當霸權國在權力式微時，則以禪讓之勢交出權力予崛起大國；亦體認服膺世界領導者雖將損及國家利益，惟若採對抗立場，必將斲傷國家安全，為改革開放營造有利的國際環境乃成為中共外交的戰略目標。 中共的崛起，引起全世界對中共的關注，除了針對中共的政治、經濟、社會、軍事的發展感到興趣之外，比較關心的還是中共未來對外關係走向。特別是當中共高層近年來不斷向外宣示有關「和諧世界」之理念時，不僅反映了中共當前的實力、位置、角色認知與政策走向，同時也反映了胡錦濤對外政策風格基本上已從90年代「韜光養晦」轉向「有所作為」。中共目前正處於對內建設「和諧社會」，對外形成「和諧地區」的發展階段。因此「和諧社會」、「和諧地區」、「和諧世界」，是中共由內而外建構大戰略的三部曲。從「和平崛起」、「和平發展」到「和諧世界」的理念，就是要消除「中國威脅論」。 從建構主義的觀點與外交實踐成果來看，中共確實成功維持了一個和平的國際環境，特別是和平、友好、共同發展的周邊環境，有助於政權的穩定，符合國家利益。把推動建設「和諧世界」的宏偉目標，與中國自身實現「和平發展」的長遠戰略結合，這將成為很長時間內指導中國外交政策的基本方針。而「和平發展、和諧世界、互利共贏」理念的提出，表明了中國正在為逐漸樹立富有建設性、負責任大國形象做出努力，正在以一種更加開放自信、理性務實的外交姿態出現在國際舞臺上，同時對周邊乃至世界的影響力也隨著綜合國力的提高與日俱增。 By studying the history of the rise and fall of great powers in history, China has learned the lesson that the reasons why the rise and fall of a dominant world great power all have something to do with the domestic and international environments of that specific dominant great power. Any rising powers trying to challenge the world dominant power of that time fail with no exception. Only when the strength of dominant world power starting to decline and is willing to yield its world leadership voluntarily, can the rising power assume the world dominance peacefully. In the mean time, to yield the obedience to the rule of world dominant great power might somehow damage the national interest of the rising power, but confronting the dominant world power would endanger the national security of the rising power. Before implementing the opening up and reform policy, Chinese government opposed and criticized the idea of so-call world order comprehensively. However, with the on-going reform and open policy, China changed its attitude toward the world into a more positive and constructive ones and engaged itself with diversified world affairs. The foreign policy concept of “harmony with the world” advanced by Hu Jintao properly signifies the relative strength and privileged position China stands in the world power hierarchy. In the mean time, the idea also signifies that Chinese foreign orientations have changed from staying with low international profile in the 1990s into a more aggressive engagement with world affairs. From the constructivist point of view and observing from the achievement of of Chinese foreign policy, China does maintain a good relationship with the rest of the world. And a peaceful, friendly, cooperative foreign environment does help the stability of Chinese government and has met with Chinese national interest. The integration of the idea of harmony with the rest of the world and peaceful development within China will help Chinese government to build long-term Chinese foreign policy fundamentals. Those concepts like “peaceful development, harmony with the world and mutual benefit with other countries of world” are all properly integrated with the norms of the world society today, in which China has demonstrated its sufficient self-confidence and is willing to establish a rich, constructive and responsible image of a great world power. It is for sure that Chinese influence on the world affairs will likely to increase with its rising national powers.