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    題名: 聯合國維和行動之研究-以納米比亞為例(UNTAG, 1989~1990)
    其他題名: Research on united nations peacekeeping operations : namibia case study(UNTAG, 1989-1990)
    作者: 張中皓;Chang, Chung-hao
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
    翁明賢;Wong, Ming-hsien
    關鍵詞: 維和行動;納米比亞;United Nations;Peacekeeping Operations;Namibia
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:46:15 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 和平與秩序之存在,係任何社會是否可長期穩定發展之必要條件之ㄧ,和平與秩序之建立,則須接受法的支配,而法律制度則形成「社會制約」之ㄧ環。國家以司法機關之優勢,以強制力對違法者施以刑罰,因此國家之秩序得以建立。同理,在國際法,國家的權利受到非法侵害時,則須以自力救濟為之。
    然而二次世界大戰後,國際間鑒於國際聯盟集體安全制度仍存有缺失,以致造成戰爭依然產生,便亟思組建更健全之國際組織,聯合國即於此概念下誕生。聯合國係一維護國際安全與和平之組織,爲確保各國於國際間和平相處,聯合國憲章中明確規範實踐「集體安全」體系之方式與執行機構,俾成為化解國際爭端之標準法準。惟於冷戰期間國際社會因美、蘇兩大陣營意識形態不一致而形成對峙局面,使聯合國集體安全制度所假設之「大國一致」理念無法落實,聯合國原始設立功能遭受嚴重致約。為解決此一窘境與解決現存及具潛在衝突之國際爭端,維和行動之概念產生與實施因此油然而生。
    自1988年以來,聯合國維和行動介入地區與國家程度較以前更為廣泛,行動的規模、功能及戰略意涵均產生改變;同年聯合國維和部隊榮獲諾貝爾和平獎後,引發國際間對聯合國維和行動在衝突或具潛在衝突地區(國家)構建和平方案與安全環境之努力寄予厚望,而1989年聯合國派遣過渡協助團(UNTAG)赴納米比亞協助該國完成內部維穩與自由大選之成功建國案例,更使得國際社會對聯合國維和行動之成果予以高度肯定。
    在檢視納米比亞之獨立經過與聯合國維和行動之歷史演變時可以發現,隨著冷戰發展漸趨緩和,維和行動之目的已由原來單純衝突原因調查與調停區域及國際爭端,轉變為主動介入區域衝突、甚至主導協助國家重建等複雜性議題,以確保和平秩序與穩定之維持,顯見聯合國在國際政治舞台上已逐漸扮演一個不可或缺的角色。
    本論文旨在探討國際集體安全意涵之轉變下,聯合國從事維和任務之源起、行動法源與歷史發展,並具體分析影響維和行動之要素,同時選擇具指標意義之納米比亞過度協助團協助建立納米比亞與完成區域維穩之案例,並檢證其成功因素。
    Peace and order are one of the key prerequisites for sustenance of social development. So the existence of law is to regulate various scopes of human life, and to be the criteria and social control of dealing with issues or disputes, by which the basic discipline are maintained. As for international law, based on pacta sunt servanda (pacts must be respected), it is not only to regulate the relationships among states, but also to be the judging standard of solving international disputes.
    Because of the incompetence of the League of Nations which caused WWⅡ to break out, the United Nations came up and became the new international organization to maintain international peace and security. In addition to the function of an international forum, the UN also sets up criteria of how nations interact with each other. In order to protect the existence and sovereignty of every individual nation, the Charter of the UN clearly defines the apparatus and ways to fulfill the concept of “collective security”.
    Since 1988 the traditional role and function of the UN have changed due to its peacekeeping interventions in unrest areas or states. The Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the UN peacekeepers in the same year was a recognition to the UN’s decisive contribution to the resolution of conflict around the world, and also represented the manifest will of the community of nations. In 1990, the success of UNTAG in Namibia lightened the will for peace in the whole international community once again.
    This thesis aims to examine, from the perspective of the UN collective security, the role and function changes of UN peacekeeping operations. The UNTAG is taken as an example to explain and analyze the successful factors of the UNTAG.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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