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    Title: 反恐時代美國外交政策之研究
    Other Titles: A study of U.S. foreign policy at the age of counterterrorism
    Authors: 陳育晏;Chen, Yu-yen
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    張京育;Chang, King-yun
    Keywords: 九一一事件;恐怖主義;外交政策;國家利益;911 event;terrorism;foreign policy;national interests
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:45:43 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 美國外交政策的制定通常是以其國家利益為最主要的考量,美國所關注的主要利益分為兩個方面,第一,防止美國本土與人民遭受攻擊,這是最首要也最被一致認可的利益。第二,維持國家重要基礎設施的安全與國家機制的運行。美國為了確保國家生存發展的利益不受損害,在九一一事件後重新將心力關注於防堵恐怖主義在世界各地蔓延,阻止恐怖分子再次攻擊美國,並以更加強硬和保守的態度追求美國的國家利益。布希總統深信,憑藉著美國強大的軍事優勢,世界上沒有任何國家膽敢和美國作對,同時美國也為國際社會提供一個安全發展的環境。
    美國在執行其外交政策目標時常採取「棒子與胡蘿蔔」的手段,一方面採取強硬的方式維護其國家利益,另一方面卻以富有理想主義的道德標準向世界散播美國價值觀,在傳統的歐洲及亞洲盟邦裡,美國或許沒有遇到太多阻力,但是在中東這個以回教國家居多的地區,似乎讓美國使不上力,因此,布希政府擬訂中東和平進程,希望藉由支持巴勒斯坦建國換取回教世界支持美國的反恐行動,進而降低恐怖分子攻擊美國的動機,讓美國人民免於生活在恐怖攻擊的陰影之下。
    布希的外交理念係以國際關係中的現實主義為基礎,以美國之安全與商貿利益為核心,強調軍事同盟與自由貿易。關於國際秩序的維持,傾向先求鞏固同盟,再求與對手競爭交往。至於國際維和任務、人道援助、海外用兵等,則傾向採取「謹慎干涉主義」,一切以對美國是否有利為依歸。布希認為美國在回應恐怖攻擊時必須提高警戒,有時候單方面的行動是必要的,如此才能確保美國國家安全不受到任何敵對勢力的威脅。
    美國將結合無與倫比的軍事力量,以推行全球反恐運動及民主制度為外交政策目標,使世界局勢朝向有利美國國家利益的方向發展,並促進所有國家和社會都能自主選擇有利於其本身的政治和經濟制度,幫助易於遭恐怖組織利用當作庇護所的弱國及衰敗國家擺脫戰亂和貧窮,徹底消除恐怖主義滋生的溫床。
    The formulation of U.S. foreign policy usually takes its national interests as the main consideration. The national interests divides into two aspects: First, to prevent the U.S. territory and the people from any attack, which is the most important and commonly agreed unanimous. Second, to maintain the security of national infrastructure and the operation of governmental mechanism. For the sake of assuring the vital national interests, the U.S. concentrates its effort to prevent, defeat and contain the inrush of terrorism, and to seek national interests by taking the tougher and more assertive attitude after the 911 event. President Bush deeply believes that by means of military superiority, no country in the world will dare to oppose the U.S.. Simultaneously, the U.S. also provides a safe environment for the international society.
    The U.S. usually uses the “stick and carrot”method to execute its foreign policy. On the one hand the U.S. adopts a hard way to protect national interests, and on the other the U.S. uses the standard of idealism to promote the American values around the world. The U.S. does not encounter much difficulty in the European and Asian allies, but in the Middle East, the U.S. has faced with resistance in the Muslim world. For this reason, the Bush administration has drawn up the roadmap for the Middle East peace and supports the Palestinians to build up an independent in order to country to earn the Islamic collaboration in the counterterrorism actions, reduce the terrorists’ incentive to attack the U.S., so as to let all Americans live without fear.
    Bush''s diplomatic idea is using the realism as a foundation and using security and commerce as the core. It emphasizes the military alliance and free trade. About the international order maintenance, he prefers to consolidate allies and then to compete with adversaries. As the issues of international peacekeeping duties, humanitarian aids, and overseas military operations, Bush inclines to take “discreet interventionism” as his thought. He thinks that the U.S. should respond to terrorists attacks vigilantly, and in order to keep the U.S. from any threat sometimes unilateral actions are necessary.
    The U.S. will use unrivaled military power to further the global counterterrorism movement and democracy as the core goal of foreign policy. Furthermore, the U.S. hopes that all countries and societies can choose the most advantageous political and economic system to themselves independently, to help those countries which have been used as safe haven by terrorism organizations to get rid of the chaos caused by war and poverty, and to eliminate the hotbeds of terrorism thoroughly.
    Appears in Collections:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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