第四章：本論文在此章首先將使用行動戰略理論中戰略行動模式的概念分析普魯士政府1862－1871年之間運用間接戰略和直接戰略的狀況。其次則引借「孫子四求」的概念，以行動自由的觀點綜合評估普魯士政府1862－1871年之間的戰略成就。 The establishment of German Empire was a decisive event in the history of western world. The political and military strategy of Prussia in the period from 1862 to 1871 is worthy of strategic studies. This thesis uses the theory of strategy of action of André Beaufre. The thesis analyze the selection of strategic objects and strategy lines, and the use of strategic actions with the systematic strategic approach and the viewpoints of freedom of action. The aims of the thesis are as follows : 1. Analyze the context of thought in the selection of policy and strategy lines of Prussia. 2. Analyze the total strategy and the operational strategy in the fields of diplomacy and military of Prussia. 3. Analyze the conduct of strategy of Prussia from the viewpoints of freedom of action.
The thesis is consist of four chapters in additional to the preface and the conclusion. The main ideas of each chapters are as follows : Chapter 1 : Discuss on the effects of the territorial gains of Prussia in the arrangement of the Congress of Vienna (1815). Analyze the reasons of the diplomatic failures of Prussia in 1850. Chapter 2 : Discuss on the establishment of the strategic advantage of Prussia in 1850s and 1860s, including the rise and its effect of the German Zollverein, the strengthen of military power, and the change of international strategic situation. Chapter 3 : Rebuilt the structure of thought of strategic decision-makers of Prussia on the conduct of the unification of Germany. Chapter 4 : Analyze the use of strategic actions of Prussia in the direct and indirect strategy with the concept of the mode of action, and the strategic achievement of Prussia with the concept of the four kinds of pursuit of Sun Tzu.