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    題名: 後冷戰時期中國軟權力之研究
    其他題名: Studies on the China soft power in the Post-cold War Era
    作者: 廖登山;Liao, Teng-shan
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
    翁明賢;Wong, Ming-hsien
    關鍵詞: 軟權力;Soft Power
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:43:37 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 中國在1978年改革後,經濟實力開始大幅成長,到了1990年代冷戰的結束後,國際社會上開始出現中國威脅論的聲音,使得中國備感到中國的崛起須有正面形象,並且逐步對外宣傳中國「和平崛起」意涵,而這正是從後冷戰時期開始,中國運用其擁有的軟權力來消弭中國威脅論,宣揚中國正面國家形象。所以本論文是探討中國從後冷戰時期所擁有的軟權力要素及其運用的方式與能力,屬於非介入性的研究,主要採取質性研究方法中的歷史/比較分析法,在理論應用上採用奈伊的軟權力論。先從軟權力意涵作解析─權力的歷史演變及其與軟權力的關係,再對中國在後冷戰時期中實施文化作為及對外政策具有軟權力因素來作探討。
    在中國文化吸引力方面,檢視中國從後冷戰時期開始的漢語傳播能力,由漢語水平考試人數及考點的增長率,孔子學院的設置數來評量;在中國教育實力,以教育經費的投入、教育政策的發展,而增進國民基本教育水平的成長,高等教育人才的培養、高等學校的設立等來評量;在體育軟權力,以中國的奧運表現及舉辦大型體育賽事的體育交流活動來看中國的體育軟權力。在對外政策方面,從江澤民提出的新安全觀開始看中國對外的軟權力,以中國的多邊外交、大國夥伴關係、睦鄰政策、公共外交、領袖外交等指標來看中國對外軟權力運用。在設程設定能力方面,先由中國參與國際組織的歷程,來看中國對國際組織參與模式、態度、方式的轉變,並以中國主導創立的上海合作組織、中國積極參與的東盟10+1、10+3,來看中國在這其中所擁有的影響力、吸引力及其主導的能力。另外北京共識的出現說明了中國的發展模式,正吸引著東南亞、中南美洲等國家。
    由這些中國在後冷戰時期運用的軟權力作為,可看出在時間面向上,中國的軟權力能力在90年代後開始發展並逐步成長,尤其在2000年之後成長程度大幅增加。在空間面向上,中國軟權力目前僅對亞洲周邊國家比較在吸引力及影響力,對其他地方仍不足。中國在議設定能力方面,對國際組織及國際條約的參與已由以往的旁觀者到參與者到主導者的方向前進。中國對軟權力的運用也從高階政治向低階政治方向轉換,同時也為中國的經濟發展創造一個良好的環境,並促進中國的國家形象,消弭中國威脅論,創造一個「和平崛起」的意象。
    When China started its policy of “reform and opening-up”, the economic power grew speedy sequentially. In 1990’s, the end of cold-war era, the” China Threat” has emerged in the international society. Just because of that, it’s imperative for China to improve her positive image by gradually propagandizing the meaning of “China Rise” to the international society. Thus, the “Soft Power” was the very method of china to terminate the” China Threat” in the post-cold war era. In this thesis, we attempt to use the unobtrusive measures to probe into the element, the utilization, and the ability of China’s “Soft Power”. This thesis adopts history/comparative analysis of the qualitative research method and also is conducted in terms of the “Soft Power” theory which is the masterpiece of Joseph S. Nye. In the beginning, we analyze the content of “Soft Power”: from the view of the historic change and the relevance “Soft Power”. Next, we discuss the cultural maneuvers in the cold-war ear and analyze the factors of “Soft Power” of China’s foreign policies.
    On the perspective of Chinese cultural attractiveness, there are three indicators as follows. First, we survey the extent of the Hanyu(the Chinese language)spreads based on the number of examinees and the increase rate of service of HSK and on the amount of “Confucius Institute”. Second, we survey the educational power by the budget and the development of educational policy; hence we can estimate the nationals’ educational quality, the development of tertiary education, and the establishments of higher education schools. Third, we survey the athletics soft power by the performance of Olympic held in 2008 and communication through several international games. Ever since Jiang Zemin has preached “New Security Concept” started China’s external soft power. Thus, on the perspective of foreign policies, we can observe the maneuvers of diplomatic soft power by several indicators like “multi-lateral diplomacy”, “great-power partnership”, “good-neighboring policy”, “public diplomacy” and, “leadership diplomacy”. On the dimension of agenda setting ability, we can see what the cloud and dominance China possesses by observing the changes of mode, attitude and, method that China participating international organizations, furthermore, the SCO dominated by China and the ESEAN 10+1, 10+3 that China participate actively are the apparent evident as well.
    Besides that, the emerge of “Beijing Consensus” showed that the Chinese development pattern was attractive by developing countries in south-east Asia and central-south America. On the dimension of time, the China’s “Soft Power” has gradually developed in 1990’s, more over, has grown rapidly after 2000 all that due to the maneuvers of “Soft Power” in the post cold-war era. In the other hand, China’s “Soft Power” only presents its attractiveness and influence in surrounding Asian countries. In the field of agenda setting, the participation of international organization and international treaties has move forward to leading rule from observer. The maneuvers of “Soft Power” has also transform to high politics from low politics, in the meantime, that create the benign environment for China’s economic growth. That even gives rise to not only the promotion of China’s positive image that decrease the”China Threat” but also the creation of the imagery of “peaceful rise”.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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