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    Title: 中共後備武裝力量之民兵發展研究
    Other Titles: The study of militia development in the reserved armed forces of People's Republic of China
    Authors: 王惠民;Wang, Huei-ming
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    翁明賢;Wong, Ming-hsien
    Keywords: 後備武裝力量;民兵;Reserved armed forces;Militia
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:43:31 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中共國防武力區分:人民解放軍、中國人民武裝警察、民兵。而中共後備武裝力量內涵中,除預備役部隊、學生軍訓外,位居主體地位的「民兵」,其生存發展過程,同解放軍一般,仍受整體國際環境軍事變革與中共國防政策軍事戰略目標所規範,後備動員走向亦隨之調整步伐。
    民兵,係植基於中共在政治上黨管武裝的堅持、傳統人民戰爭的組建思想、平戰一致與勞武合一的組織形式等必要原則而組建,並受「民兵與預備役相結合」的法制規範;特別是中共歷代領導人軍事思想與建軍規劃走向所牽動。其角色定位即為中共《兵役法》第三十六條中所定調:「民兵是不脫離生產的群眾武裝組織,是中共人民解放軍的助手和後備力量。」
    當面臨一九七八年改革開放以後,軍事作為以服從經濟大局為著眼。中共在政治、社會、經濟各面向的劇烈變動與衝擊中,產生面對變化時必須予以對應解決的需求考驗;而中共軍事作為在改革開放之後,雖以服從經濟大局為著眼,但時至今日,中共軍事武裝力量,所面臨「第三波」戰爭型態的衝擊,與本身軍事事務變革中轉型的時間壓力,較政治、社會、經濟議題尤為劇烈,因此對民兵亦產生需求的條件。
    「民」與「兵」兼具的民兵角色,期能對相關的需求考驗有所回應。但探究民兵之回應,其困難在於其不可豁免地在此「系統」中,同步受到改革開放的嚴重衝擊與影響;顯露諸如:組織與管理實務、素質與專業導向、經費與法制保障、角色定位與訓練等問題。此均為其前瞻未來,選擇發展方向時,所應面對者。
    The national defense forces of People’s Republic of China can be divided into three parts: People''s Liberation Army, People’s armed police of China, and Militia. In the connotation of the reserved armed forces of People’s Republic of China, despite of the reserve service and military training of students, the most important part is “militia”, of which process of existence and development is still regulated by the revolution in military affairs of the entire international environment and the military strategic targets, just like People''s Liberation Army. In addition, the trend of mobilization of reserved armed forces is also adjusting.
    Militia is based on the insistence that Communist Party of China controls the military forces politically, traditional thinking of people’s war, consistence in peaceful time and wartime, and the organic form of integration of labors and forces. Besides, it is regulated by the law that ”militia should combine with the reserved armed forces ”,especially changed by the military thinking and the plans of establishing arm force of the leaders of Communist Party of China. Its role is just followed by the 36th clause of “Military Service Law ” of Communist Party of China, which is “Militia is the People’s armed organization with production, and it is the assistant and reserved forces of People''s Liberation Army. ”
    After the reform and opening-up since 1978, China’s military actions followed whole economic situation. Facing the severe change and charge of politics, society and economy, Communist Party of China has to solve the tests of need after those change. Though China’s military actions should follow whole economic situation after the reform and opening-up, until today, the military armed forces of People’s Republic of China will face the charge of the third style of war and the pressure of time under the change of the revolution in military affairs by itself, and those above are severer than the issues of politics, society and economy.
    Militia is combined with people and armed forces, and it is expected to reply to related need and test. However, the difficulties are that militia will be affected by the charge and influence of the reform and opening-up in the system, such as the problems of organizations and affairs of management, quality and profession-oriented, funds and legal protection, and set-up of roles and training. Those are China will face when it looks forward the future and chooses the direction of development.
    Appears in Collections:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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