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    Title: 中共陸軍戰略的轉變因素及發展趨勢(1949-2008)
    Other Titles: The changing factors and the trend of PLA army's strategic (1949-2008)
    Authors: 吳祥銘;Wu, Hsiang-ming
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
    曾復生
    Keywords: 戰略;陸軍戰略;中共解放軍戰略;Army Strategy;People's Liberation Army(PLA);Strategy Evolvement
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:43:22 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中共建政之後,其軍事思想的脈絡主要由毛澤東、鄧小平、江澤民、胡錦濤等歷代領導人作為解放軍建軍思想的原則。本文從中共各個時期,不同的領導人作為時間的斷限,分析中共陸軍戰略的變與不變。
    毛澤東時期的陸軍戰略在不同的時期有不同的思考,但仍以防禦作為主軸。此時期最大的特色在於,以防禦戰略作為其陸軍戰略的最高原則。陸軍戰略的內涵便是以人民戰爭為手段,嚇阻敵人發動的戰爭。以防禦戰略作為維護國家安全的軍事手段。鄧小平復出接掌政權後,開始修正毛澤東的人民戰爭思維。其認為發生大戰的可能性已低,但發生傳統戰爭的可能性卻很高。故將中共的戰略改往現代條件下的人民戰爭發展,陸軍則依此朝向現代戰爭的積極防禦戰略發展。鄧小平一面制定軍事政策和國家政策之間的連貫性,一面進行現代化的軍事改革。江澤民時期的陸軍戰略,其認為發生大戰的機率已低,世界各國均把經濟作為發展的重點,中共也沒有置身於外。在發展經濟的原則下,陸軍戰略也跟著做了調整。面對新時代的軍事變革,解放軍必須以質代量、以科技代替人力,如此才能趕上西方的腳步。胡錦濤時期中共的陸軍戰略,為了實現軍隊現代化與加強解放軍的作戰能力,在和平崛起的國家戰略引導下增強軍隊效能,成為中共軍事發展的方向。在陸軍戰略的轉變因素方面,軍事事務革命的發展對中共產生影響,反映在陸軍戰略上,便是裁軍、體制變革以及快速反應部隊的組建。
    中共的陸軍戰略確實受到了國防戰略的影響,中共強調透過不對稱的作戰力量來嚇阻敵人。本論文雖是從中共陸軍戰略轉變因素與發展趨勢的角度來研究,但深入研究後發現,中共陸軍戰略的發展,實際上是綜合了許多因素而成。陸軍戰略的演變趨勢與如何維護國家安全及其能力有關。換言之,中共陸軍戰略是維繫其國家安全的手段,是依附在國家總體戰略之下的一環。
    After the establishment of the PRC, the PLA Army’s doctrinal developments in different stages largely depend on the strategic thinking of its contemporary political leaders, such as Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao. This thesis will analyze the changeableness and the unchangeableness of the PLA Army’s strategy under the guidance of different political leaders in different stages.
    In Mao Zedong era, the PLA Army’s doctrines experienced minor changes, but all focused on conducting a defensive operation to maintain the national security. As the highest principal of the PLA Army’s strategy in this stage, the PLA Army’s was structured using the doctrine of “people’s war” as the means to deter a war waged by its enemies. After took the power, Den Xiaoping reckoned that although the threat of a major war was remote, but the possibility of an outbreak of a limited conventional war was still high. Therefore, he began modifying Mao’s “people’s war” thinking, and the new doctrine became known as “people’s war under modern conditions”. On the one hand, Deng began establishing the linkage between the military and the national strategies. On the other hand, he initiated a military reform to modernize the PLA. Under this circumstance, the PLA Army began developing the so-called “active defense” strategy to cope with the needs of modern warfare.
    As the PRC’s President, Jiang Zemin considered also that the threat of a major war was very limited. Therefore, he put the economic development as the highest national priority as most the world’s major power did. The PLA Army’s strategy was also adjusted to deal with the economic development. In order to catch up the western world, the PLA ad to focus on quality rather than the quantity, technology rather than manpower. After Hu Jintao took the office, the “peaceful rise” has become the national prioritized policy, and the military modernization and the enhancement of the fighting capability has dominated the PLA Army’s doctrinal evolvement at this stage. The Revolution of Military Affairs (RMA) plays a very important role in shaping a modern PLA Army’s, with a smaller, restructured force and the creation of the rapid reaction units.
    The PLA Army’s strategy is indeed in influenced by its national strategy. Recently, it’s strategy become to focus on developing asymmetric warfare capabilities to dissuade its potential enemies. This study is aimed at the changing factors and the trend of PLA Army’s strategic evolvement. After further research, it’s found that the PLA Army’s strategic evolvement is based on different factors and is related to the abilities of maintaining its national security. In other words, the PLA Army’s strategy is attached to the national strategy as a tool to maintain the national security.
    Appears in Collections:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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