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    題名: 軟權力在美國對中共外交的運用 : 柯林頓與小布希政府的比較
    其他題名: The exercise of soft power in U.S. policy toward China : comparing The Clinton and The Bush administrations
    作者: 江庭蔚;Chiang, Ting-wei
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    李明;Lee, Ming
    關鍵詞: 軟權力;硬權力;柯林頓政府;小布希政府;美中關係;Soft Power;hard power;the Clinton Administration;the Bush Administration;U.S.-China Relations
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:41:50 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 權力資源的重要性會隨著時代背景的轉變而轉變,領導國家所擁有的主要權力資源,從非常具體的物質結構,如金銀礦產,慢慢轉變成較不具體的理念結構,如國際建制的發展。在全球資訊時代下,權力本質產生變化,權力內涵的重要性從硬權力(hard power)慢慢的過渡到軟權力(soft power)身上。

    軟權力是一個國家透過吸引而得到期望結果的能力,也透過說服其他國家追隨或使他們贊同可以產生出期望的行為的能力。而吸引和說服的能力來自於一國擁有更加豐富的物質文化、更加符合時代潮流的精神文化以及更加有利於社會進步與和諧的制度文化。筆者更在此定義上再作一界定-「積極軟權力」,也就是「如何去刺激正面的想像力」。一國使軟權力為國際社會所接受,進而具體轉化成國際組織、秩序或機制等,其內在就含有該國的文化價值和利益取向,進而使該國之地位和權力在國際社會中延伸。本文主要研究從柯林頓與小布希政府對中共的外交政策中,探究軟權力在美國對中共外交的運用。首先說明軟權力的概念,其次分析柯林頓與小布希政府對中共外交政策中軟權力之運用,並從特定議題中的具體政策進行探討,最後針對特定議題的實際政策面切入,從而比較分析柯林頓和小布希前後兩任政府對中共外交政策中軟權力運用之延續性與差異性。

    研究發現,從柯林頓政府到小布希政府,美國對於中共的外交政策具有很大的延續性,而軟權力的行使也成為了現階段對中共外交政策的基本原則。而兩任政府最主要的差異在於柯林頓政府的重心放在「促使中共參與構成全球秩序的各個組織和機構」,而小布希政府則是「敦促中共在建立和加強這些組織機構中發揮作用」。不過,軟權力的行使並不容易獲得立竿見影的效果,從美國對中共行使軟權力的影響來看,在經貿議題和軍事議題上,試圖突破現狀,並且有利益因素的驅使,使得其影響力大為增加;然而在人權議題和台灣議題上,軟權力的發揮只能維持現狀,兩國並不急著尋求解決的方法,希望既有合作關係不受到這兩議題的影響而破壞中斷,使其影響甚為有限。然而,從軟權力正面的作用觀之,至少可讓美中雙方尋求到共識並維持穩定的關係,為兩國在未來處理更進一步的問題時立下基礎。另由中共領導人一代代觀念差異的改變來看,未來對二議題的轉圜空間可期。因此,「時間的調和」是關鍵所在,勢將產生潛移默化之效。
    Soft power is a political method to attract people, and the attraction often leads to acquiescence. A country may obtain a higher status in the world politics, through other countries admiring its values, emulating its example and aspiring to its level of prosperity and openness. In addition to the thesis, positive soft power, it is also a way to create positive imagination. In order for its soft power to be acceptable in international society, it has to convert intangible soft power into tangible international organizations, orders and institutions. These tangible ones contain the country’s culture and interests and project its power in international society.

    I’ve done the research about the exercise of the soft power in U.S. policy toward China between the Clinton and the Bush Administrations. This thesis starts from explaining the concept of soft power, and then analyzing the exercise of soft power on specific issues that happened during the two administrations. Finally, the thesis ends in comparing the similarities and differences of wielding soft power during the two administrations.

    This thesis mainly demonstrates two ideas. First, both the Clinton Administration and the Bush Administration wield soft power in U.S. policy toward China, which is continuous and becomes the basic principle in U.S. policy toward China. The primary difference between two administrations is that the Clinton Administration tried to engage China and the Bush Administration wanted China to be a responsible stakeholder. Second, wielding soft power is not easy to get instant results. On business and military issues, the influence of soft power is obvious. Wielding soft power on business and military issues is trying to break the U.S.-China status quo to be more cooperative. On human right and Taiwan issues, however, the influence of soft power is not apparent as business and military issues. Wielding soft power on human right and Taiwan issues is merely trying to keep the status quo the way it is. Nevertheless, on the positive side of soft power, it keeps the U.S.-China relations stable enough to build the foundation for advanced problems in the future. Wielding soft power may change and influence China unobtrusively and imperceptibly.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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