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    題名: 古羅馬兵役制度之研究
    其他題名: A study of ancient Roman military service system
    作者: 江則誼;Chiang, Tze-yi
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    施正權;Shih, Cheng-chuan
    關鍵詞: 古羅馬陸軍;兵役制度;民兵式陸軍;職業化陸軍;ancient Roman army;military service;militia army;professional army
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:41:34 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 當羅馬還是台伯河畔的小城鎮時就已經擁有本身的陸軍。最早的羅馬陸軍由國王、國王的侍衛、居住在羅馬城四周的氏族成員組成,據信,此時的羅馬軍事組織根源於三個古老的部落,每一個部落都要提供1000名士兵,所以最早的羅馬陸軍總兵力為3000人,這3000人組成「羅馬軍團」。另外擁有財力自備馬匹的人則組成騎兵隊,數量大約為300人。一般傳說西元前六世紀時羅馬第六位國王塞爾維.圖流斯首度對全城居民進行戶口與財產調查,並依每位居民擁有私產多寡決定該居民所屬的階級。劃分為五個主要階級的「塞爾維階級制度」具有軍政雙重目的,政治方面的目的是做為議會投票的單位,軍事方面的目的則是做為服兵役的依據。然而如此複雜的階級制度是否那麼早就出現非常值得懷疑,可能最早只存在一個階級,那就是有財力武裝自己的公民士兵階級,稍後才逐漸出現其他的階級。對於這些保衛祖國的羅馬公民來說,服兵役是責任、義務也是特權。隨著戰爭的時程加長、戰爭的地點距離更遠,徵兵組成軍隊更加困難。新增的領土需要衛戍部隊,更讓原本短期服役的民兵式部隊逐漸轉變為長期服役的職業化部隊。服役財產限制持續調降反應出羅馬社會中小型地主數量減少,而這些人傳統上都是羅馬陸軍最主要的人力來源。這項轉變與馬留的軍事改革常被認為有關聯。現在服役被視為一種職業,會佔去一名成年男子一生中大部份的時間,這也造成軍民之間的隔閡加大。內戰結束後,奧古斯都將一般士兵的役期延長為16年,之後又延長為20年。西元6年,奧古斯都建立軍事財庫用於支付士兵退伍時的退伍金。羅馬帝國時期,絕大部份的軍團士兵是由志願者組成,兵源來自義大利各地,後來又擴大到各行省。由奧古斯都建立的兵役制度通行整個帝國達三百年之久。
    Rome had its army when Rome was a small village on Tiber bank. The Earliest Roman army consisted of king, his bodyguard, and the members of clan-groups living in Rome. It was believed that the first Roman military structure was based on three ancient tribes. Each tribe provided 1000 men, these 3000 men formed a “Legio”, another 300 men, who could afford equip themselves with horses, made up a small body of cavalry. It is said that in the late 6th century B.C. the sixth king, Servius Tullius, conducted the first census of the Roman people and divided the population into classes according to their wealth. These “Servian Constitution” which divided into five classes was for voting purposes and eligibility for military service. However, it has been doubted that such a complex constitution was established at such early date. Originally a single class probably existed, composed of those able to afford to equip themselves, with the five classes developing later. For Roman citizen defense of the state was a duty, a responsibility and a privilege. With longer and more distant campaigns, recruiting soldiers became more and more difficult. Newly won provinces had to be held by garrison, and inevitably the part-time militia army changed to full-time professional one. The successive reductions in the property qualification for military service reflect a falling away in the number of small or middling proprietors who traditionally provided the bulk of the legions’ manpower. The change has sometimes been associated with Caius Marius. Military service became a career which lasted for much of a man’s adult life, soldiers were increasingly separated from civilians. After the civil war, Augustus increase the period of army service to 16 and then 20 years. In AD 6 he established a military treasury for discharge payment. Under the empire, legionaries were mostly volunteers, drawn initially from Italy, but increasingly from the provinces. The military system created under Augustus was still recognizable three centuries later.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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