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    題名: 美軍聯合兩棲作戰(JOINT AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS)能力之研究 : 以兩次波灣戰爭發展為例
    其他題名: Reseaurch JOINT AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS capability us amry experience for two Gulf Wars
    作者: 彭正午;Peng, Cheng-wu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
    曾復生
    關鍵詞: 聯合兩棲;AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:41:12 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 提要
    遠從希臘時代,波斯帝國利用了艦船將集結的大軍裝載運送至馬拉松登陸,攻擊雅典未果又迅速的撤軍,而雅典在事後為應付強大的波斯帝國積極發展海軍,由此可見就有兩棲作戰的輪廓業已出現;在科技發展及戰爭模式的演變,經由歷史教訓檢討,針對第一、二次波灣戰為研究標的,以有系統的整理、分析與歸納,再結合「超越地平線的兩棲作戰概念」、「自海上出擊」、「海上作戰兵力預置」、「來自海上的作戰機動」 等理念實施研究,瞭解美軍聯合兩棲作戰能力的虛實及變化,故將研究重點置於兩次波灣作戰間聯合兩棲作戰理論是否推陳出新?能力是否提昇?裝備是精進?等相關問題予以研究。
    就美軍概念而言,兩棲作戰是聯合的、彈性的,在二次波灣戰爭中,均呈現兩棲作戰的特性就是海軍與登陸部隊之間的整合,兩棲特遣部隊、登陸部隊及其他派遣支援部隊之間密切協調與合作。依據美軍聯合兩棲作戰準則認為兩棲作戰是一種由兩棲部隊從海上發動的軍事作戰,兩棲部隊裝載於艦艇上,其目的就是帶領登陸部隊(landing force,LF)上岸 ,以達成指定任務。兩棲作戰通常需要某一三維的地帶區域,而兩棲目標就位於其內,兩棲作戰地區必須具有足夠的範圍,符合達成兩棲部隊任務所需的必要海、陸、空作戰空間。該地區必須具有足夠的大小以確保達成兩棲部隊的任務,並且必須提供足夠的區域,以遂行必要之陸、海、空作戰。李達哈特曾經說過:「兩棲彈性乃是一個海權國家最大的戰略資產」 ,美軍海軍的四項任務 :戰略赫阻、制海、兵力投射、海軍展示。「所謂的兵力投射則指海軍對陸上部隊有所影響者,可分為三類:兩棲突擊、海軍岸轟及戰術航空」 。面對同樣的敵人,採取不一樣的兩棲作戰理論,其原因為科技發展會造成敵情威脅的差異與改變。
    未來聯合兩棲作戰,在我國發展的面向,應當戰爭初起,能否迅速「快反」,能否將兵力快速投射所望地區,不再是地面作戰趨勢所獨有(尤其針對台灣防衛作戰),無論由海至陸、由空至海或由陸至海,均須有週密迅速的快反作為。如何使我國未來兩棲戰力有效遂行快反、超越地平線的作戰,更應師法歐美先進國家,完成精進改革亦是本文探討的目的與重點。
    Abstract:
    It is far since Greek era, the Persian kingdom utilized the naval vessel to load the main forces concentrated and transport landing to the marathon, attack Athens have no resolution fast withdrawal of troops again, and in hindsight for deal with strong Persia kingdom develop navy actively Athens, therefore the outline with the amphibious warfare has already appeared; In the development in science and technology and development of the war way, make a self-criticism via the historical lesson, for is it mark to study, in order to have systematic arrangement, analyse and sum up to first - two wave gulf fight, and then combine '' the amphibious warfare concept of surmounting the horizon '', '' carry out from sea '', fight at sea troops preset, '' come from maritime fight the flexible '',etc.: idea study implementing, understand American army unite the actual situation, amphibious warfare of ability and change, is it put on two wave gulf fighting room unite amphibious warfare theory weed out the old and bring forth the new especially to study? Is ability promoted? Does the equipment progress greatly? Wait for relevant problems to study.
    As regards concept of American army, the amphibious warfare is joint, elastic, during two wave gulf wars, presenting the characteristic of the amphibious warfare is the merger between the navy and landing force, amphibious task force, landing force and is it support the close coordination and cooperation among the army to send while being other. Unite amphibious warfare criterion and think the amphibious warfare is a kind of military fight that is launched from sea by amphibious unit according to the American army, the amphibious unit loads on the naval vessel, its purpose is to lead the landing force (landing force, LF) The amphibious warfare usually needs a certain three-dimensional area area, and the amphibious goal takes one''s place in it inside, the amphibious warfare area must have enough ranges, accord with and reach the essential sea, land where the task of amphibious unit needs, fight in the space emptily. This area must have enough size to so as to ensure that reaches the task of the amphibious unit, and must offer enough area, in order to satisfy the conduct in the essential land, sea, fight emptily. Li Da and Harte has ever said: '' the amphibious elasticity is country''s largest strategic assets of a sea right '', four tasks of the navy of American army: The strategy hertz is hindered, make sea, troops throwing, navy''s show. '' the so-called troops throw and refer to the navy to the person who influences to some extent army by land, can be divided into three kinds: It is the amphibious assault, rumble after navy bank and tactics aviation ''. In the face of the same enemy, adopting the different amphibious warfare theory, its reason is difference and change that development in science and technology will cause the enemy movements to threaten.
    Unite the amphibious warfare, facing in our country''s development in the future, should war get up for the first time, could rapidly '' quick instead '', could throw district hoped fast troops, it is no longer that a ground attack trend is exclusive ( Especially direct against the defensive combat of Taiwan) ,No matter from sea to land, from empty to from land to sea, must have careful a fast one against the conduct fast to sea. How to make the amphibious fighting capacity of future of our country satisfy the quick instead, fight surmounting the horizon of the conduct effectively, should imitate the advanced country of America and Europe even more, the reform is also purpose that this text is probed into and focal point to finish progressing greatly.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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