八旗者，努爾哈齊所定之國體，它不僅是強而有力的軍事組職，同時也是卓有成效的行政組織和經濟組織。所謂「jakūn gūsa be gurun booi fuleh da」（八旗者，國家之根本），就成為清一代不變之訓示。 但在初期，全國盡隸於八旗，以八和碩貝勒為旗主，旗人皆為其下屬，且對旗主有君臣之分。是故君主理論上也不能掌握他旗之武力。這對於統治者而言，都是相當不安全的，因而清歷代皇帝，無不絞盡腦汁，企圖轉化八旗制度，以達到「文人統制」。使清朝的政軍互動、軍事專業乃至於軍民關係都都發生劇烈的變化。 The Eight Banners. The system of the government was established of the Nurhaci. It is not only strong military forces, but also effective administrative and economical organization. So-called「jakūn gūsa be gurun booi fuleh da」（The Eight Banners are national foundation）, turn into constant instructions given by a superior of the Ching dynasty. But early day, the whole country was subordinate to the Eight Banners system. the eight direction rulers（jakūn hoŠo belie）were leader of the banner, All bannermen were inferiors, and were must faithful to his liteutenant general of a Banner. The emperor cannot direct control armed force of other Banner theoretically. It is very dangerous to the ruler. Therefore all the successive emperors of the Qing dynasty, rocked brains invariably, tried to transform the Eight Banners system, came to「Civilian Control」. Thus political-Military interaction, Military Profession and Military-civil Relation take place violent change in the Ching dynasty.