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    題名: 小布希政府時期美中與美臺軍事交流之研究
    其他題名: A study of military exchanges of U.S.-China and U.S.-Taiwan in the George W. Bush administration
    作者: 鍾如郁;Chung, Ju-yu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
    林正義;Lin, Cheng-yi
    關鍵詞: 軍事交流;美中關係;美台關係;Military exchanges;U.S.–China Relationship;U.S.–Taiwan Relationship
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:39:52 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 美國在兩岸關係上扮演舉足輕重的角色,從1979年之後,美國歷任政府便面臨到一個戰略難題:美國處心積慮希望在與中國保持友好關係、提供台灣安全保障兩者間維持「均衡」的狀態。小布希總統在2001年入主白宮,他明顯的友台態度,加上2001年4月軍機擦撞事件,使得美中雙邊軍事交流在質與量上均呈現倒退趨勢,美國對台軍事交流則於此時逐漸升溫。但在911事件後,美國亟需中國在反恐議題上的合作,使得原本緊張的美中關係獲得大幅改善的機會。另一方面,台灣延宕採購小布希政府在2001年同意出售的三項重大軍購,使得美方多次質疑台灣是否具有自我防衛的決心,成為美台軍事交流發展的絆腳石。再加上親台官員相繼離職,降低了美台軍事交流突破的可能性。

    美國是台海安全的關鍵性因素,美台軍事交流又是台灣安全的基石,因此,如何因應「敵長我消」的態勢,實為台灣國防研究者所面臨的重要課題。本研究涉及美中台三邊關係,研究主體為小布希政府對中與對台軍事交流之政策。研究的時間範圍係自小布希總統2001年元月就職以來至2007年底。在研究素材上,以美國政府官方政策文件、重要人士談話為一手資料,輔以報章評論、學術期刊著作為二手資料,作為美國政府對中與對台軍事交流研究的依據,藉此論證其政策立場與發展情況,使本研究能完整呈現出小布希政府時期對中與對台軍事交流的全貌。本研究的目的在藉由分析影響美中、美台軍事交流的關鍵因素,研究美國對中、對台軍事交流的決策機制如何運作,以了解美國對中、對台軍事交流政策的思維、策略與轉變的原因,本研究更將從美中、美台軍事交流動機、策略與實質內容等三個面向,分析美國對中與對台軍事交流政策的異同,及其如何互為影響。更進一步探討美國主要官員如何針對國際環境的變化定義美國的國家利益,做出調整美中、美台軍事交流之決策。

    研究結果發現:基於不同時期國家安全戰略不同的考量,美國對中軍事交流政策或鬆或緊,小布希政府上任之初雖然採取緊縮政策,後為因應國際情勢變化而再度與中國進行交流。即便小布希總統有個人的好惡,但著眼於中國在國際事務上的影響力與龐大的經濟市場利益,美國都必須積極與中國保持友好關係。同時也希望藉由交流加強雙方互信,防範中國這個潛在的競爭對手與美國爭霸。在美台軍事交流部分,歷經諸多政治上的爭議後,小布希政府雖然對台灣當局時有批評,或因三項軍購案的延宕,而拒絕提供我F-16 C/D的發價書,看起來美台關係似乎陷入低潮。但是,美台各項軍事交流計畫仍舊照常執行,似乎未受政治紛擾的影響。畢竟對於美國來說,台灣的地位有其戰略價值,台海維持現狀,才能確保美國在亞太地區的戰略利益,故美國必須維持與台灣的軍事交流,提供台灣自我防衛所需的武力,並協助台灣提升聯合作戰的能力,方始符合美國國家安全的最大利益。
    The US plays an indispensable role in cross-Strait relations; since 1979, each US administration has faced a strategic dilemma - managing the challenging relationship between US-China and US-Taiwan relations. The US keenly hopes to sustain a “balanced” situation between a friendly relationship with China as well as provide Taiwan with security assistance. After President George W. Bush came into office in 2001, his friendly attitude towards Taiwan, in addition to the mid - air collison incident in April 2001, caused US-China military exchange to backslide, both in quantity and quality. However, after the September 11 incident, the tense relationship between US and China began to dissolve due to the fact that US needs China’s cooperation in war of anti-terrorism. On the other hand, Taiwan’s long-stalled decision to the three major arms procurement has brought the Americans to question Taiwan’s determination to defend itself. Moreover, as more pro-Taiwan US officials continue to leave the office, possibilities for a breakthrough in US-Taiwan military exchange have decreased.

    US is a crucial factor to the security of the Taiwan Strait and US-Taiwan military exchange serves as a foundation for the security of Taiwan; therefore, how to deal with an increasing advantage towards China is indeed a significant issue for Taiwan defense researchers. This research touches on US-China-Taiwan trilateral relationship, with the research subject of Bush Administration’s military exchange policy towards China and Taiwan. The time frame of the research runs from the inauguration of President Bush in January 2001 to the end of 2007. As for research sources, US government official documents are used as first hand material and academic research papers and newspaper articles as second. The research purpose of this thesis is to analyze the key factors that influence US-China and US-Taiwan military exchange as well as the operation of its decision - making mechanism, in order to understand the rationale and tactics in US-China and US-Taiwan military exchange. Furthermore, the author will examine how US key officials define U.S. national interests as the international environment changes, as well as adjust their policy towards military exchanges with China and Taiwan.

    The research demonstrates that: US policy towards military exchange with China differs according to the national security strategy in different times; though the Bush administration put forward a more strict policy towards China after his inauguration, it began to interact with China later on due to the changes of the international environment. Even if President Bush has any personal preferences, US still has to actively maintain a friendly relationship with China, based on the fact that China has its influence in international affairs as well as lucrative economic interests. In terms of US-Taiwan military exchange, though the Bush administration sometimes criticizes the Taiwanese government, or even refused to give Taiwan a LOA for the F-16 C/D fighter jets, US-Taiwan military exchange is still carrying on. After all, to the US, Taiwan’s geographic position has great strategic value and the US can ensure its strategic interest in the Asia-Pacific region only if the Strait maintains stable. To continue military exchange with Taiwan and provide it with assistance needed in order to protect itself and enhance its joint operation capability, would be the only way to meet US national interests.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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