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    题名: 從尉繚子的戰略思想解析美國硬權力與軟權力的運用-以第二次波灣戰爭為例
    其它题名: An analysis of application of American hard power and soft power from the strategic thought of Yu Liao Tzu-take the second Gulf war for example
    作者: 呂紹江;Lu, Shao-jiang
    贡献者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
    施正權;Shih, Cheng-chuan
    关键词: 智在人為;聰明權力;all actions depend on people’s intelligence;smart power
    日期: 2008
    上传时间: 2010-01-10 23:39:41 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 第二次波灣戰爭在未經聯合國安理會授權下,於2003年3月20日美國飛彈攻擊巴格達,揭開戰爭序幕,美國避開聯合國的框架,尋求戰爭的方式解決伊拉克問題。約瑟夫.奈伊於2004年的著書《軟權力》中提到美國在伊拉克戰爭中展示了軍事實力,推翻了海珊政權,但並未能解除恐佈主義對美國的威脅,而且在軟權力上付出極高的代價,損及美國的國際聲望。
    《尉繚子》為古代獻君之策,為古代王侯尋求稱王之良策,與美國在波灣戰爭期間前助理國防部長約瑟夫.奈伊於2004年著書大力提倡「軟權力」,以挽救美國之國際影響力所追求之目標有許多相似之處。
    《尉繚子》中廣為討論的戰略思想是<戰威>篇中的「道勝、威勝、力勝」,但研究《尉繚子》後發現「刑、德」的「人事」、「靜勝、專勝」、「千人而成權、萬人而成武」、「王者伐暴亂,本仁義焉」等,是值得被探討的戰略思想,並以第二次波斯灣戰爭軟、硬權力的運用為背景,逐步解析。
    以《尉繚子》的重要戰略思想,解析第二次波斯灣戰爭期間美國軟、硬權力的運用,不可諱言美國確實擁有無人出其右的硬權力,與豐沛的軟權力資源,但是否善用,是解析的重點。
    在研究過程中發現「智在人為」是《尉繚子》的核心思想,人的作為以「智」為依歸,「智」是成功的關鍵。孫子在選定將才時,以「智」為首要考量,因為戰略的本質就是鬥智,孫子的「智」是「將才之智」。兩者雖然都推崇「智」,但《尉繚子》所提的「智」,不僅僅是將才單一的智,而是戰略決策的「智」。《尉繚子》的戰略思想中,不斷強調決策的重要性。「道勝」、「專勝」、「成權」是戰略決策成功的運用,所仰賴的是「人事」,亦即在<戰威>中所提:「聖人所貴,人事而以」。而「人事」在《尉繚子》的觀點而言是以「先神先鬼,先稽我智」為首要考量。
    布希政府運用的政策,在約瑟夫.奈伊的觀點而言,過度使用了硬權力。約瑟夫.奈伊所期待的是美國影響力在世界扮演舉足輕重的地位,不要因硬權力的濫用,而式微了美國影響力。因此,提出「軟權力」給當政者不同面向的思考。但不代表硬權力不重要,因為許多政策的後盾仍然需要硬權力支撐。因此,約瑟夫.奈伊在《軟權力》中提及美國若能在外交政策上,平衡的使用軟、硬權力,這將成為聰明權力的運用,再度締造美國的成功。這樣的主張與本文研究發現,「聰明權力」與《尉繚子》的「智在人為」有異曲同工之處。軟、硬權力的運用是人為的結果,而如何平衡運用軟、硬權力,決定因素便是「智」的「聰明權力」。
    Shirking the limits of the United Nations, America sought the war way to solve the Iraqi problem. Without being authorized by the United Nations Security, America guided missile attacked Baghdad on March 20 2003, opening the war prelude. From the book, Soft Power, written by Joseph S. Nye Jr. mentions that America couldn’t remove the threat of terrorism, paid the extremely high cost on soft power, and decreased her international reputation. Despite America had showed military strength and overthrow Saddam’s regime during the Iraqi war.
    There are lots of similarities between Yu Liao Tzu and Soft Power. Yu Liao Tzu, was the best book offering methods for those ancient ministers seeking to become an emperor. Like what Joseph S. Nye Jr., the former deputy Minister of Defense, recommending “soft power” for the goal to save the American international influences.
    In Yu Liao Tzu Art of War Chapter 4, it discusses widely, “in warfare, there are those who gain victory through the way; those that gain victory through awesomeness, and those that gain victory through strength.” Using the background of how hard power and soft power that was adapted during the second Persian Gulf War. There are still many thoughts that are worth to analyze step by step.
    With the important strategic thought of Yu Liao Tzu. The main point is to analyze how America well use hard power and soft power during the second the Gulf War.
    In the period of my research, I find that the core of Yu Liao Tzu talks about “all actions depend on people’s intelligence.” It means that what people decide to act all relies on intelligence. “People’s intelligence” is the keyword. Sun Tzu also chose a conductor by “intelligence” because all warfare need is to compare who is more intelligent. Although both of Yu Liao Tzu and Sun Tzu enthrone “intelligence”, there is still a little difference between their thought. When Sun Tzu focuses the single person’s intelligence, Yu Liao Tzu pays more attention on how to make strategies with “intelligence.” Yu Liao Tzu emphasis the importance of making strategies over and over in his thought. Yu Liao Tzu insists that victories in war are achieved by human effort, through one''s action, but not by astrology, auspicious timing and many other superstitious things.
    With the view of Joseph S. Nye Jr., policy which Bush government makes has used “hard power” excessively. Originally, Joseph S. Nye Jr. expects that America can well use its influence to play an important role in the world. Hence, he proposed “soft power” to give a different thinking way for those who come into power. By Joseph S. Nye Jr. theory” if government can use soft power and hard power equally when it comes to diplomatic policy, America will become successful again. ”And this situation is what Joseph S. Nye Jr. calls “smart power”. In this study, we can find that “smart power” has the same essence like Yu Liao Tzu’s core “all actions depend on people’s intelligence.”
    显示于类别:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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