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    Title: 美國帝國主義虛實之研究 : 以第二次波灣戰爭為例
    Other Titles: The study of American imperialism in operation Iraq freedom
    Authors: 宋修傑;Sung, Hsiu-chieh
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
    曾復生
    Keywords: 帝國主義;新帝國主義;美國帝國主義;Imperialism;Neo-Imperialism;American Imperialism;colonialism
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:39:13 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 2006年6月,中國國家主席溫家寶訪遍非洲各國並簽訂多項雙邊協議。這些非洲國家,有很多是西方民主國家所謂「流氓政權」或「邪惡」人權紀錄的黑名單。同年8月,伊朗、俄羅斯、委內瑞拉等石油資源豐富國家,積極進行經濟與外交的合縱連橫,抗衡美國在國際政壇的霸權地位。這些舉動,有濃厚「反美帝主流價值」的挑釁意味。
    回顧美國先後以反恐理由對阿富汗及伊拉克發動先制攻擊,值得我們用心思考一個議題-「美國真的是因為要推廣民主的普世價值而出兵嗎?與911是否有直接的關連性?」-亦即,使用「絕對獨占排他武力霸權」的正當性。美國自由派政治巨擘--薛爾頓‧伍霖(Sheldon S. Wolin)在其著作「政治與遠見」(Politics and Vision)指出,「促使權力及於邊境,並非著眼於外國領土的佔領,而是擴張新市場;包括經濟與文化」。薛爾頓‧伍霖從西方政治哲學思想分析「極權」(Totalitarian);頗有暗指現今美國的意味。
    ?今日,帝國主義已經不復存在了,但不意謂帝國也隨之消失,新帝國主義已不需要用攻擊力量來長期滯留,它是一種經濟的攻略,一種政治上的擴張。無獨有偶,麥克‧哈特(Michael Hardt)與安東尼奧‧奈格理(Antonio Negri)的著作『帝國』,巧妙的將「美國帝國」從「帝國主義」中解析出來;認為美國在「去帝國主義」到「帝國」的轉換過程中,以資本主義「內化」的文化透析,連結反恐「先發制人」的使用,解決資本主義同時內化與擴張的矛盾,使成一種新型態的理論。
    美國披上了歐洲國家脫下的全球權力的外衣,取代了歐洲國家不再享有的優勢。帝國主義的印象已經被美化,帝國成為所謂"聯邦共和國"(commonwealths),殖民地成為"領土"(territories),帝國形式的軍事干涉變成"國家防衛"(National Defense)、"國家安全"(National Security),和”保障穩定”(maintaining stability)等名詞。美國的出現,引發了傳統帝國主義理論能否適用國際政治等問題。本論文將從「先發制人」的政治思想為緣起,第二次波灣戰爭的發展為例,探討美國帝國主義之虛實,辯證美國從「帝國主義」轉向「帝國」的發展軌跡,與建立新的全球的帝國主權形式,完成以反恐戰爭為旗幟的「新美國帝國」。同時將發展部的軸線,擴及美國如何以「跨國企業」、「軍事干預」、及「全球化」等手段,控制與維繫帝國生命。誠如尼采所言:通俗(exoteric)與內視(esoteric)的不同,在於層次而非平權;通俗是由井觀天的視野;而內視卻是由上而下的俯視。本論文期許能以多面向的角度分析美國帝國,以避免「見樹不見林」的遺憾。
    America is a super power in the world. But is it a good Empire? Or a rouge nation? The answer is still remaining untold. The United States regularly attempts to influence the nature of foreign regimes with policies that range from economic assistance to troop deployments. But the closer the locus of a conflict is to home, moreover, the greater is the need for international endorsement to negate any appearance of "imperialism."

    This paper wishes to explore the intricate relations of the American colonialism, nationalism and imperialism. In the following section, the paper will examine the definition of the word “Empire” and “Imperialism”. Then establish the relations between the American value and globalization. To figure out what is the current policy-making method, and how they protect the national interests by military power. Next, the paper shall explore the connection of Imperialism and American policy from the case study in Iraqi Freedom Operation. Finally, I will make a conclusion in the last part of the paper. To explain, analyze or correct the old Imperialism and New American Imperialism.

    ~ The difference between the exoteric and the esoteric…whatever one believed in an order of rank and not in equity and equal rights. The exoteric approach sees things from below; the esoteric looks down from above. ~ (From Nietzsche).
    Appears in Collections:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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