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    題名: 俄羅斯遠東區的中國移民研究
    其他題名: A study on Chinese migrants in Russia's far eastern region.
    作者: 呂俊逸;Lu, Chun-yi
    貢獻者: 淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士班
    馬良文;Maliavine, Vladimir
    關鍵詞: 中國移民;俄羅斯遠東區;黃禍論;Chinese Migrants;Russia’s Far Eastern Region;Yellow Peril
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:37:29 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 早在清朝時期,由於俄中兩國東部國土比鄰,俄羅斯遠東和南西伯利亞地區已經有來自中國的狩獵者和採集者在此活動。1860年後,俄羅斯的統治範圍擴大到遠東地區,因此地資源豐富自然成為中國東北地區向外遷移的地方。

    蘇聯解體後,隨著俄中關係友好與經貿合作的發展,前往俄羅斯遠東地區的中國人逐漸增加,根據俄羅斯官方統計遠東共約有23萬中國移民(而民間估計顯示約有40-70萬人)。他們大部分不是永久的居民,而是季節性的工人。俄中民間年貿易額已突破100億美元。

    中國移民除了帶給俄羅斯經濟利益外,也出現中國人非法偷渡或逾期滯留等不良行為產生,反華言論一直不斷,因而在俄羅斯遠東出現對「黃禍論」的恐懼。這些恐懼出於中國移民在俄羅斯勞動市場的增加將統治俄羅斯遠東區。但實際研究中國移民的俄羅斯專家認為,這些恐懼的言論很多缺乏客觀、公正的認識,其中包含了對中國人的偏見,常常誇大不實。

    此外,2007年1月1日俄羅斯頒布「新移民法」,從4月1日起俄羅斯將開始全面禁止外國人從事商品零售,並加強了對非法移民和非法雇傭外國勞動力的雇主的處罰。目前到俄羅斯工作的中國移民,大部分都在從事零售業活動,此舉將影響約三十萬中國人。

    這項研究涵蓋了歷史華人移民在俄羅斯遠東地區,其經濟基礎,社會組織,以及俄羅斯人在社會調查數據的反應。詳細的分析顯示,中國移民保持與祖國的密切聯繫,並保存傳統的社會結構的許多特點。這項研究也包含,在現代條件下的中國移民在俄羅斯的評估及其未來可能的趨勢。
    Already under the reign of Ch’ing Dynasty the territory of Southern Siberia and Russian Far East was accessible to the inhabitants of Ch’ing empire. Since the expansion of Russian rule to the Far East after 1860 this land has become the natural arena for the various activities of people from China’s North-East region.
    Russian-Chinese local trade has also got a strong impetus for development. As a result by the turn of the 20th century Russia’s Far East has become a home for about 150 thousand Chinese migrants at a time. Chinese in Vladivostok numbered around 30.000.
    With the strengthening of political and economic ties after the disintegration of the USSR the number of Chinese migrants in Russian Far East has increased drastically reaching 230 thousand people at a time (some estimations give much higher figures: 400-700 thousand) . Most of them were not permanent residents, though, but workers on temporary contracts. The turnover of the China-Russia local trade in this area has reached 10000 million US dollars.
    This trade brought some economic benefits to Russia but it had some negative consequences as well and this gave rise to the new wave of the “Yellow Peril” fears in Russia, particularly in the Far East. These fears were related partly to the possible domination of Chinese migrants on Russian labor market and partly the increase of Chinese population in general. The analysis of the actual state of Chinese migration in Russia has led the author to conclude that these fears lack substantial ground.
    The new law on immigration adopted in 2007 completely bans small retail sales by the foreigners and increases control over illegal immigration. As of now most Chinese migrants in Russia whose number amounts to 300 thousand, are engaged in retail trade.

    This study covers the history of Chinese immigration in Russia’s Far East, its economic basis, social organization as well as the reaction of Russian population reflected mostly in the data of the social polls. The detailed analysis shows that Chinese immigrants in China retain close ties with their motherland and preserve many features of traditional social structure. This study contains also the assessment of the contemporary conditions of Chinese immigration in Russia and its possible future trends.
    顯示於類別:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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