而過年在目前所知的所有民族中，都佔著節日裡的頭號地位。年節是最基本、也是最核心的節日。因此研究年節在俄羅斯的歷史演變，自然有著重大的意義。而俄羅斯歷史悠久，年節的變化代表的意涵，以及俄國民眾對過年的心態與從前又有何不同，皆是筆者想了解探討的。作為一年當中最重要的節日，年節對於俄羅斯人民對自身民族文化的認同，起著關鍵性的作用，對於經濟的提升也有著一定的影響性。 目前國內尚無探討俄羅斯年節背景及其演變過程的專書，因此筆者首先以傳統節日的文化理論著手，且以文獻參考法為主，部分實地調查為輔。運用蒐集之俄國、台灣、大陸、美國之資料，與部分俄羅斯實地觀察之記錄，予以整理、分析。本論文共計六章，第一章為緒論，說明本文的研究動機、目的、方法、範圍、限制，並在文獻回顧指出前人在相似題目的研究狀況；第二章則探討傳統農民社會的新年過節方式與其代表意義，另有聖誕節與送冬節的探討；第三章則就莫斯科王國與俄國帝國時代的新年慶祝方式來研究；第四章則進入到蘇聯時代，蘇聯時代的整個政治體制皆與先前大不相同，連帶的也對節日有相當大的影響；第五章則是蘇聯解體後，新年節日在當代俄羅斯的意義，並探討節日文化與民族認同間的相互關係；第六章提出結論。 Holiday is a core element of culture. Its historical transformations closely follows the main stages of culture’s historical development. That is why holidays, both traditional and modern, reflects virtually all aspects of cultural heritage as well as the ideological system and the policy of state. In spite of differences between the system of holidays in various cultural traditions, there is some general pattern which reveals universal patterns of cultural practice. The comparative study of festivities amon different tribes and nations can disclose the nature of human culture in general and its main lines of historical development. This study’s main goal is the analysis of traditional New Year celebrations. The New Year is the most basic and ancient festival, which served as a prototype for other holidays within an annual circle. So the study of the New Year Customs and their Historical Evolution in Russia is especially revealing for the understanding of the nature of holiday. New Year celebration gave a particularly long history, they have undergone important transformations and so testify to the main stages of the history of Russian society and the mentally of Russian people in past and present. These transformations also constitute one of the main subject of study. There are no comprehensive studies and collection of ethnographical sources on New Year Customs and their historical evolution in Russia. Still, it is possible to mark out four main stages of their development: the ancient period when festivals were part of the primitive agrarian religion, New Year festivities as a part of the pre-modern urban culture, the modern period (coinciding with the Communist rule) and New Year festivities after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The study is based mostly on Russian historical sources and materials collected by the author in Russia, including some field study. An extensive literature from Russia , Taiwan, China and USA has also been consulted. This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter contains theoretical introduction explaining the research motivation, purpose, method, scope and limitations of study. The author offers the review and initial analysis of primary sources and literature as well as the chief results of the study. The second chapter is dedicated to the comprehensive analysis of New Year festivities in traditional Russian village with a special emphasis on Christmas and Maslenitsa customs. The third chapter deals with the New Year celebrations in Russian Empire period and is focused mostly on official ceremonies and New Year activities of the urban population. The fourth chapter describes the change of festivals’ status in the Soviet time and major innovations in festivities. During this period the festivals have become the object of ideological policy. The fifth chapter containa an analysis of the New Year’s place in modern Russia’s social life. The sixth chapter features the main conclusions of the study.