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    Title: 蘇聯學者對史達林民族概念的研究(1960~1990年代)
    Other Titles: A study of scholarly views on Stalin's concept of nation in the USSR (1960-1990)
    Authors: 吳妍靜;Wu, Yen-ching
    Contributors: 淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士班
    馬良文;Maliavine, Vladimir
    Keywords: 史達林;民族理論;蘇聯;民族;Stalin;National theory;USSR;Ethnos
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:37:09 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 列寧逝世後,史達林和後來的歷任領導人,都實行背離列寧民族平等和民族自決原則的民族政策,致使潛在矛盾的民族問題爆發,導致蘇聯的瓦解。而史達林的民族定義曾作為蘇共民族政策的基本方針,蘇聯的瓦解意謂著作為制定民族政策基本方針的民族定義,有被進一步檢視的必要性。六十年代中期,蘇聯學者紛紛針對史達林民族定義討論,並提出看法。
    史達林民族定義主要內容為:「共同語言」、「共同地域」、「共同經濟生活」和「共同心理素質」四大特徵缺一不可;民族是由氏族、部落、部族和民族歷史四階段所形成,但民族只有在資本主義上升時期才能形成;民族非種族共同體。
    根據史達林民族定義的缺陷,蘇聯學者提出的看法,即本文研究的結果如下:
    1.民族之前的人類共同體,具有民族特性,所以也是民族的一種,稱之為「民族(ethnos)」
    或「民族共同體」。但由於氏族是外婚制,所以氏族並不包括在民族的一種。
    2.民族四大特徵非缺一不可,特徵有其層次上的結構,即:形成條件、客觀特徵和根本要素。
    3.除了民族三階段分類外,還有其他的民族共同體類型,如:超民族共同體等。
    4.民族過程分為「民族結合」和「民族分解」。「民族結合」又分為「聚合」、「同化」和「一體化」。
    5.民族是一個生物學範疇,是適應地理環境所產生的自然現象。其適應的結果是種族特徵,而種族成份又組成不同的民族。
    6.「共同心理素質」的內容為「民族性格」和「民族自我意識」。
    另外,學者認為史達林民族定義另一錯誤就是沒提出「民族自我意識」。事實上,史達林是故意避而不談。因為若他在民族定義中談到「民族自我意識」的話,其結果就是造成多民族的蘇聯提早瓦解。因此,俄羅斯的學者季什科夫(В.А.Тишков)認為要放棄討論各民族的「民族自我意識」。蘇聯學者把民族放在社會學範疇研究,而提出了「民族自我意識」,這促使了蘇聯的瓦解,或許也是他們所未料想到的。所以有些俄羅斯學者認為把民族作為一種社會現象研究是一種錯誤,認為民族學不應該社會化。
    The national policy of USSR was modeled according to Stalin''s views. The collapse of USSR was due, among other reasons, to growing tension in national relations. Thus, Stalin''s theory of nation and ethnicity needed to be reevaluated. . During the 60s, the Soviet scholars started to discuss Stalin''s views and put forth new opinions. The new opinions approach to the issue of nationality designed to eliminate the defects of Stalin’s theory were as follows:
    1.Before nation comes into being, the human community has ethnical character, it is, essentially, a kind of ethnos or “ethnical community”. Because the clan is not endogamous community, the historical development of ethnos has only three stages.
    2.Four essential factors are not absolutely needed for determining nation. They compose a structure of its own including forming conditions, objective characters and basic factors.
    3.In additon to historical kinds of ethnos, there is still other types of ethnical community, for example: supra-ethnical community.
    4.Ethnical process means “ethnical division” and “ethnical integration”. “Ethnical integration” contains “incorporation” , “assimilation” and “amalgamation”.
    5. Ethnos belongs to the biological existence. It is also a natural phenomenon that is adapted to natural environment. This adaptation led to racial differential, while racial features are made of different ethnic communities.
    6.“Common psychological pattern” results in “national character” and “national self-consciousness”.
    The scholars of USSR thought that the major deficiency of Stalin''s concept of nation was lack of national self-consciousness. In fact, Stalin did not want to talk about it purposely because an emphasis on “national self-consciousness” could contribute to the collapse of USSR. Thus, a Russian ethnologist V.A.Tishkov believes that it is not necessary to discuss “national self-consciousness”. Besides, national self-consciousness resulted from what some contemporary Russian scholars hold to be a mistaken view of Soviet ethnographers who attributed ethnos to the sphere of sociology.
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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