俄羅斯自18世紀初至今，以世界强國姿態活躍於國際舞臺。而其此種地位依據之一，即規模龐大、制度完備的軍隊，300多年來，俄羅斯軍隊多次打敗較之更強大的敵軍，如18世紀初的瑞典、18世紀中葉的普魯士、19世紀的法國、20世紀的德國。因此在建軍方面俄羅斯積累了極其豐富的經驗，形成了特色顯明的自家傳統。如果說起初其大膽學習歐洲他國之治軍經驗，則自20世紀以來，俄羅斯軍隊已成為其他國家（包括中國）之效法對象。 俄羅斯建軍思想特點之一，為其十分重視軍事教育，始終發揚“治軍，必先治校”原則。俄羅斯軍事教育的優良傳統，範疇廣泛，內容豐富，值得吾人研究借鑒。 本論文以歷史分析法為主，旨在研究俄國建軍思想及軍事教育的演變，分析俄羅斯軍事教育發展的基本歷史階段、當前俄羅斯聯邦軍事教育狀況與未來發展的前途。 論文共分為六章，第一章為緒論，其中包含研究動機、研究目標、研究方法與資料評估、研究架構與研究限制等。第二章“制度之建造過程”描述自18世紀初彼得大帝創立俄羅斯正規軍至於20世紀初俄國軍事教育傳統逐漸形成。第三章“建軍傳統之廢棄與恢復”主要內容是1917年布爾什維克暴動之後，列寧據其“國家與革命”的理論，企圖徹底廢除軍隊，以武裝民眾替代之。但現實證明，此與列氏其他理論一樣，是不切實際的幻想，乃至紅軍終至走上恢復俄國建軍傳統之路。第四章“建軍思想與制度之完善”旨在說明紅軍經過史達林大清洗所造成的重大損失，在對德戰爭中克服了種種困苦，發揮了其浩然正氣，使自稱戰無不勝的德軍一敗塗地，以及在戰後時期進一步完善建軍原則及軍事教育制度。第五章“俄羅斯聯邦建軍方針”著重分析蘇聯瓦解後，俄軍面臨過嚴重危機，終於東山再起，進行軍事改革，改進其原有制度，再接再厲。六章為本論文的結論。 Beginning from the early 18th century Russian entered European arena as a mighty state, the most important factor of its international role and influence being constituted by its armed forces. During last 300 years Russia has successively defeated some of the strongest military powers of its time, such as Sweden (in early 18th century), Prussia (in the middle of 18th century), Napoleon’s France (in 19th century), Nazi Germany (in 20th century). Therefore Russia has accumulated very rich experience in the field of state defense and created a specific military tradition of its own. One the most important aspects of Russian defense strategy was a very strong emphasis which was put upon military education. The system of military education in Russia has some unique features and is worth of thorough scientific research. The given dissertation is based on the method of historical analysis, and its main subject is the evolution of the concept of military build-up and military education in Russia. A special attention is paid to the current transitional process in the corresponding field in Russian Federation. The dissertation consists of six chapters. The first chapter covers dissertation’s basic goals, scientific methods, sources and limitations. The second chapter touches upon the history of Russian military thought from Peter the Great till early 20th century. A special attention is paid to the ideas of such prominent military strategists as Alexander Suvorov and general Dragomirov. The third chapter centers on the main phases of military building after October revolution. The nature of the system of military education is investigated through the case-study of the Huangpu Military School established in China with the help of Russian advisors. In the fourth chapter the military experience accumulated during World War II is analysed. The fifth chapter covers the evolution of military theory and practice in post-war Russia with a special emphasis put on the current state of Russian military doctrine and the development of the system of its military education. In the sixth chapter the conclusions of the dissertation are formulated.