本文的目的在於企圖針對烏克蘭的政治變局做出觀察和詮釋，利用這個機會對烏克蘭的橙色革命有更深的認識，透過分析烏克蘭國族認同意識的源起、演變、爭議與衝突，以及分析國族認同與烏克蘭對外政策間的辯證關係，主要探討橙色革命與其對俄烏關係的影響。對外政策與國族主義運動經常是一體兩面的，因為國族主義的目的就是要創造、帶動並強化認同，會將所觸及的客觀事物賦予國族色彩的意涵。對國族主義者而言，對外政策的建構就是合理化其國族認同訴求的實際作法。國族認同是動員群眾的最大可能力量，政治人物將自己的政見與國族認同連結，企圖拉攏群眾支持，再透過「政府」這項機制即可影響整個國家的對外政策。 2004年的總統大選中兩位主要的候選人：庫奇馬與尤申科，兩種不同基調的政治主張，引發兩種風格迥異的外交走向主張在烏克蘭社會內部相互較勁，各自以不同的選舉操作希望為烏克蘭開啟不同的可能性。大選過後，新任總統尤申科是否會改變烏克蘭原有的對外政策走向？他的新外交主張又是否會為俄烏關係帶來新的局面？這兩個課題是值得我們去觀察的。 The purpose of this paper is attempted to observe and interpret the political change in Ukraine. There is an opportunity for us to further understand the Ukraine''s Orange Revolution through the analysis of the Ukraine national identity of the source, development, disputes and conflicts, as well as the analysis of the relations between national identity and Ukraine''s foreign policy. The direction of foreign policy and national movement are two sides of the same coin, and the main goal of nationalism is to create, promote and strengthen the national identity. Nationalists consider that national identity will be carried out by foreign policy and national identity is the power to mobilize the masses by politicians. The politicians attempt to win support of the masses by link national identity and their policy, and then through the ''government'' mechanism that can affect the foreign policy of a country. During the period of presidential election in 2004 in Ukraine, There are big differences between the two main candidates: Kuchma and Yushchenko, both hope that they could create new situation for Ukraine, the two different political ideas and different directions of diplomacy war with each other in the Ukrainian society. The direction of foreign policy depends on the process of their decision-making by the authorities. The final outcome of the presidential election was won by Yushchenko. It is worth studying whether his new diplomacy change the existed relations between Russia and Ukraine or not.