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    Title: 俄羅斯人才之遷移動機與就業特徵 : 「人才外流」或「人才移動」?
    Other Titles: Migration motivations and employment characteristics of Russians : "brain drain" or "mobility of professionals"?
    俄羅斯人才之遷移動機與就業特徵 : 人才外流或人才移動?
    Authors: 黃佳玲;Huang, Chia-ling
    Contributors: 淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士班
    蔡青龍;Tsay, Ching-lung
    Keywords: 俄羅斯;國際移民;人才移動;人才外流;Russia;Brain drain;International Migration;Mobility of Professionals
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:36:44 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 隨著日益提昇的全球化(globalization)概念深植每個社會當中,「國際移民」(international migration) 遂扮演著具重要性的角色。在這樣的背景下,受過高等教育,並擁有專業技能的人才在國際間的移動、移民,便成為自然發展的結果,也就是今日大家所熟知的「人才外流」現象。號稱僅次於美國諾貝爾物理獎領域的得主人數,甚至被高盛集團列入所謂的「BRICs四國」且在2050年時成為世界第六大經濟體的俄羅斯,自1991年蘇聯政府解體以來,政府管制的自由化,使得俄羅斯的科學界得以與國際市場中的科學領域取得聯繫,也造成了俄羅斯人才的開始外移。特別是受過良好教育與訓練且具有專業水準的高科技、高技能人才,一方面由於俄羅斯對人才移動的控制力減退,另一方面也因為俄羅斯國內無法提供這些高級知識份子足夠的薪資,使得人才的大量外流,無疑地,對國家的利益造成很大的損害。因此人口移民的議題,近十年來成為俄羅斯影響社會經濟和政治發展的重要因素。
    而本論文的核心命題便是藉由了解俄羅斯人才遷移之動機與就業特徵,進而分析是屬於「人才外流」或是「人才移動」的範疇。此論文是屬於「質性研究」,採用「個案研究法」與「訪談研究法」。也就是說我們從總體面來觀察俄羅斯人才外流的整體現象,在個體面則是實際對在台灣的俄籍人士進行訪談,希望對俄羅斯的人才外流現象有更深一層的了解。在研究發現中,除了運用國際公認的定義(像是「人才」、「移動」、「遷移」等)讓論文能夠更加的清晰之外,也詳細說明「人才外流」與「人才移動」的區別。綜合來說,接受短期合約的那些人,除了部份變成永久移民之外,大部分都會在數月或數年後回到俄羅斯,以本論文的定義來說,這是屬於「人才移動」,而非「人才外流」的範疇;但若是他們一直長年累月在國外工作,到他們回國之前,以及在他們工作合約到期,根本就不回國,或是早就在原生國提出要離開俄羅斯,成為其他國家的永久移民者,我們將其行為模式視為「人才外流」。
    另外我們也發現,俄羅斯的移民有其歷史原因(像是民族因素),也有其現實的因素(例如生活條件、薪資等)。而人才外流帶給俄羅斯的不僅僅有正面的影響,更多的是負面的效果。現在俄國政府也正積極改善其國內環境、採取相關對策,來挽留高素質人才。
    Under the rising concept of globalization toward the life of society, international migration is increasingly playing a significant role. One natural consequence of this is the increased pace of the migration of scientific cadres among countries, the emergence of a specific phenomenon known as “brain drain”.Russia, only next to America, which has the most Nobelists in physical field, are listed in the BRICs by the Goldman Sachs and are about to become a big economic country in 2050. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the liberalization of government on the exit and the elimination of the “closed character” of scientific communities have brought about active connection between Russia and the international market of science cadres. Those migrants are especially people with good-education and hi-tech skills. One reason for this is the losing control of the Russian government on brain drain; on the other hand, low salary is another crucial reason that pushes out those talents from Russia. Undoubtedly, this causes huge loss on the benefit of country. So, the topic “migration of population” becomes an important factor that affects the social economy and political development in the recent decade.
    The main point of this study is to discuss whether those Russians are the outcome of “Brain Drain” or of “Mobility of Professionals” according to the migration motivations and employment characteristics of Russians. This study is a “Qualitative Research”, which applies “Case Study” and “Interview Research”. That is, we observe the whole situation of Russia’s brain drain in macro aspect, and conduct interviews with Russians who live in Taiwan now. Thus we can deeply understand the phenomenon of brain drain in a Russian perspective, significantly.
    In the research findings, we not only use the internationally agreed conceptual framework (as “Canberra Manual” and the concepts and definitions of migrants by UN, eds.) to make this study more clearly, but also illustrate the distinction of “brain drain” and “mobility of professionals”. Generally speaking, only a few of those who accept the temporary contracts may become the permanent migrants, the others may go back to Russia after several moths or several years. This is “mobility of professionals”, not “brain drain”. But there are some people who keep working abroad before going back to motherland, who don’t want to go back even the contract is over, or who had claimed to leave Russia in the host country and becoming permanent migrants of other countries. The migration model of these people are called “brain drain”.
    And also we find that the brain drain in Russia has both its historic reasons(ethic factor)and practical factors(condition of life and salary, eds.). The influence of “brain drain” not only brought Russia good effects, but also bad effects. Now the Russian government is devoted to improve the internal environment and adopt methods to keep well-trained professionals staying in Russia.
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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