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    題名: 俄羅斯聯邦基礎教育制度之研究
    其他題名: A study of Russian federation basic education system
    作者: 羅丰燕;Luo, Feng-yen
    貢獻者: 淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士班
    馬良文;Maliavine, Vladimir
    關鍵詞: 俄羅斯;基礎教育;Russian;Basic education
    日期: 2005
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:36:42 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 俄羅斯--這個未來「金磚四國」(BRICs)的明日之星,擁有世界土最豐富的礦產資源,再加上所擁有高素質的人才,在高度工業化的基礎上,終將成為與歐美各國並駕齊驅的歐陸霸權。而要實現這個理想,俄羅斯基礎教育的好壞,則是攸關國家成敗與民族發展的關鍵,故在新世紀教育改革的風潮中,世界各國都把基礎教育的改革列為首要目標,台灣如此,俄羅斯亦然,本文主旨與目的即在探討俄羅斯基礎教育經驗、問題與前景。
    俄羅斯在蘇聯解體後其政治、經濟與文化發生了前所未有的動盪,俄羅斯教育改革之路更是舉步維艱,在前蘇聯所建立起來的高素質國民教育體系,雖失去了其穩定的社會福利保障與強大經濟體系的支撐,但仍然在教育管理體制、辦學體制、教學指導思想及教育結構方面進行大幅改革,並已獲得相當成就,在國際數理奧林匹克競賽上,大放異彩並領先群雄,其學生數理方面水平更是高於世界各國同年的學生。俄羅斯有深度的人文素養並有尖端的科技技術,實令人驚嘆。研究俄羅斯基礎教育將有助我們更了解俄羅斯,並可把其教改的經驗與心得作為國內基礎教育改革的參考,意義深遠。
    本論文的研究架構上分為七章,第一章緒論是說明本文的研究動機、目的、方法、範圍與限制;第二章則說明俄羅斯及前蘇聯基礎教育發展與演變,從教育的起源基輔羅斯開始,到20世紀末蘇聯解體為止,將俄羅斯基礎教育的背景作一描述,並說明蘇聯時期基礎教育的內涵與改革,如何發展成獨樹一幟的教育體系,並成為全球霸主之ㄧ的原因與過程;第三章分析俄羅斯基礎教育管理體制的改革,說明俄羅斯在經濟激進改革下,基礎教育的轉型,如行政管理體制的改革與辦學體制改革等面向;第四章則描繪俄羅斯基礎教育之結構,包括學前教育、普通教育與職業教育階段內教學的性質、學制的規劃、學校類型多元化等未來之發展;第五章提出課程與教學的改革,除了課程內涵區域化及多元化外,人道化與民主化的教育思想則成了課程設計的主流;第六章具體說明了俄羅斯在教育改革中,所遭遇的困境,如教育經費的短缺、教師生活的困苦與無依及學生生存與發展的壓力,在本章深刻而具體的描繪出來;第七章結論,則描繪俄羅斯基礎教育的未來,所應具備的使命感及教育民族化與國際化的統合。
    Russia has been through unprecedented political, economical, and cultural turmoil after the dissolve of former USSR. The path of reforming Russia’s education is even more strenuous. Meanwhile the high quality civil education system established by former USSR has undergone a various reforms in administration, schooling, teaching and other aspects as well as in the education infrastructure. As a result it has achievedsignificant accomplishments. To study Russia’s basic education system will contribute greatly to understanding Russia, and to applying the lessons of Russia’ education reform to Taiwan’s basic education reform.
    The dissertation is divided into 7 chapters; Chapter 1 introduces the motivation, purpose, methodology, scope, and limitation of this study; Chapter 2 introduces thedevelopment and transformation of Russia’s basic education, starting from the beginning of education in Kievan Rus’, to the development of Russian education system in end 20th Century.illustrates the meaning of the basic education system under the Soviet Union era, which built the foundation for the nation to become one of the world powerswith its unique development in education system. Chapter 3 analyses the reform ofRussia’s basiceducation administration system, and explains the transformation of thebasic education system such as the reform of administrative system and schooling system aspects under conditions of the radical economical reform. Chapter 4 describesthe structure of Russia’s basic education, including the teaching nature, schoolingsystem planning, and diversity of school types and future developments, throughout pre-school, general education,and vocational education. Chapter 5 dealswith the reform of curriculum and teaching;other than localized and diversified curriculum content, the humanitarianism anddemocracy thinking has become the mainstream of curriculum design. Chapter 6 illustrates the difficulties faced during Russia’s education reform, such as the shortage of education budget, difficulties for teachers to make a living, and pressures for students to survive and grow, are alldescribed in-depth. Chapter 7 conclusion, is to paint the future of Russian basiceducation, with necessary sense of mission and the integration of education nationalization and internationalization.
    顯示於類別:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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