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    Title: 裏海地區的能源競合關係與俄國的角色(1999-2006)
    Other Titles: Russian energy's policy for the caspian sea region (1999-2006)
    Authors: 黃惠華;Huang, Huei-hua
    Contributors: 淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士班
    郭建中;Guo, Jiann-jong
    Keywords: 俄羅斯;裏海;能源;地緣政治;新制度經濟學;Russia;Caspian Sea;Energy;Geopolitics;New Institutional Economics
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:36:33 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文旨在透過地緣政治與新制度經濟學的途徑研究,探討1999至2006年普欽總統任內,俄國如何看待及處理裏海沿岸四國伊朗、哈薩克、土庫曼、亞塞拜然及區域外大國的問題,在與各國爭奪裏海能源的大戰中,如何延續後霸權的角色。各國搶奪裏海資源是地緣政治的表現,為了避免位置被其他國家所取代,讓國家失去競爭力的危機,普欽上任後積極展開與各國一起開發裏海能源的動作。
    各國聯合開發裏海資源的行為以競爭與合作的型態呈現。新制度經濟學主張國際間有許多的經濟規範與組織,就是新秩序的維持與新制度的出現,在制度裡,各國以結盟的方式,建立起溝通平台,可減少資訊的不對稱性;各國元首定期開會交換意見,避免欺騙行為;在組織架構下,透過談判、協商的機制解決所有的爭端;簽訂協議來約束各國的開發行為,有助於降低交易成本,並在框架內實現國家的利益。
    俄國所擁有的裏海資源少,俄屬裏海地區所生產的石油及天然氣為全俄的1%,貢獻不多,但是卻擁有裏海區域大部分的出口管道,所以俄國裏海的政策重點在於靈活運用管道策略及利用能源公司來替國家賺錢。
    經濟上,與西方國家合作除了可以與加強與世界經濟整合,還可以學到西方國家的技術。管道的過境費可以為俄國帶來穩定的稅收,不斷的開發新管道可以促進沿線地區的發展,達到擴大內需的效果。政治上,參與國際組織,與其他國家的能源合作,在國際舞台上爭取發言權,擴大影響力,對內加強特殊產業的控制,來保證國家的安全與穩定。
    The subject of this thesis is to analyze the interrelation and interaction of geopolitics through new institutional economics from 1999-2006 with regards to Russia''s exposure to the four states neighboring the Caspian Sea, namely Iran, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan as well as to other great powers acting in this region.
    The striving for natural resources in the Caspian Sea is evident if observing each of the neighboring countries’ behavior. Each of them tries to get the biggest piece of the Caspian energy cake, and concurrently, in terms of influence, avoid to be replaced by the other neighboring countries. It is a struggle that has also caused loose of competitive power. When Putin assumed office, Moscow positively engaged with his Caspian neighbors for a cooperative management of the Caspian Sea energy.
    The joint exploitation of the Caspian natural resources reveals the condition that competition and cooperation happens when states peruse each own interests. New institutional economics emphasizes that trade will create new rules and institutions to maintain the new order. Institutions could reduce the informational asymmetry by setting up communication platforms for each participant; avoids fraud or disadvantageous treatment by organizing regular meetings to exchange views and ideas. Conflicts are treated under organizational framework via negotiations, problem-solving consultations, and the resource-exploitation behavior will under the surveillance of joint agreements which signed by all participated states. This cooperative way helps them to reduce costs of trade transactions and to realize each country’s interest fairly within this framework.
    Russia''s development of its Caspian Sea natural resources is humble, as oil and natural gas production in that region merely stake 1% of the country’s total energy production. The contribution of the Caspian Sea energy production is very low. However, Moscow possesses the regions biggest export pipeline, and hence its policy’s focal point lies in the flexible application of a pipeline strategy and to use foreign companies to invest and earn money in this region.
    From the economic point of view, the cooperation with western countries not only strengthens Russia’s integration into the world economy but also enables the biggest country in the world to learn from western technologies. Additionally, the pipeline transit charges are a reliable and stable tax income. During continuous exploitation processes, new pipelines can promote the regional development of the Caspian Sea, achieving an expansion of the domestic demand.
    On the political level, participation in international organizations and the energy cooperation with other countries increases Russia’s influence on the international stage, strengthens its control of particular domestic industries and guarantees the security and stability of the country.
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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