|其他題名: ||Russian energy's policy for the caspian sea region (1999-2006)|
|作者: ||黃惠華;Huang, Huei-hua|
|關鍵詞: ||俄羅斯;裏海;能源;地緣政治;新制度經濟學;Russia;Caspian Sea;Energy;Geopolitics;New Institutional Economics|
|上傳時間: ||2010-01-10 23:36:33 (UTC+8)|
The subject of this thesis is to analyze the interrelation and interaction of geopolitics through new institutional economics from 1999-2006 with regards to Russia''s exposure to the four states neighboring the Caspian Sea, namely Iran, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan as well as to other great powers acting in this region.
The striving for natural resources in the Caspian Sea is evident if observing each of the neighboring countries’ behavior. Each of them tries to get the biggest piece of the Caspian energy cake, and concurrently, in terms of influence, avoid to be replaced by the other neighboring countries. It is a struggle that has also caused loose of competitive power. When Putin assumed office, Moscow positively engaged with his Caspian neighbors for a cooperative management of the Caspian Sea energy.
The joint exploitation of the Caspian natural resources reveals the condition that competition and cooperation happens when states peruse each own interests. New institutional economics emphasizes that trade will create new rules and institutions to maintain the new order. Institutions could reduce the informational asymmetry by setting up communication platforms for each participant; avoids fraud or disadvantageous treatment by organizing regular meetings to exchange views and ideas. Conflicts are treated under organizational framework via negotiations, problem-solving consultations, and the resource-exploitation behavior will under the surveillance of joint agreements which signed by all participated states. This cooperative way helps them to reduce costs of trade transactions and to realize each country’s interest fairly within this framework.
Russia''s development of its Caspian Sea natural resources is humble, as oil and natural gas production in that region merely stake 1% of the country’s total energy production. The contribution of the Caspian Sea energy production is very low. However, Moscow possesses the regions biggest export pipeline, and hence its policy’s focal point lies in the flexible application of a pipeline strategy and to use foreign companies to invest and earn money in this region.
From the economic point of view, the cooperation with western countries not only strengthens Russia’s integration into the world economy but also enables the biggest country in the world to learn from western technologies. Additionally, the pipeline transit charges are a reliable and stable tax income. During continuous exploitation processes, new pipelines can promote the regional development of the Caspian Sea, achieving an expansion of the domestic demand.
On the political level, participation in international organizations and the energy cooperation with other countries increases Russia’s influence on the international stage, strengthens its control of particular domestic industries and guarantees the security and stability of the country.