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    Title: 俄羅斯聖像與民俗漆製微縮畫之研究:以帕列赫(Палех)地區為主
    Other Titles: A study of Suzdal iconic tradition and folk lacquer painting (focusing on Palekh)
    Authors: 陳芃樺;Chen, Peng-hua
    Contributors: 淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士班
    馬良文;Maliavine, Vladimir
    Keywords: 聖像;帕列赫;漆製微縮畫;果里科夫;蛋彩;民俗藝術;Icon;Palekh;Lacquer miniature;Ivan Golikov;Tempera;Folk art.
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:36:30 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 聖像畫傳統是由修道院的修士所繪製,但在十五世纪時出現民間藝術家製作的聖像畫。由蘇茲達里(Суздаль)地區中的帕列赫(Палех)、厚陸依(Холуй)與瑪斯契拉(Мстера)三個城鎮產量最大,其中有以帕列赫的聖像最為出名。因為當地土地貧瘠造就民間藝術的活躍。而之後帕列赫藝術家:果里科夫(Иван Иванович Голиков 1886 – 1937),在革命之後創造了漆製微縮畫(Лаковая миниатюра)的新藝術,再次將俄羅斯民間藝術推向高峰。一般人不甚了解漆製微縮畫發展與聖像畫之間的關係,而本文在探討民間聖像畫之演變至1917年十月革命後禁止,與1922年漆製微縮畫創新的過程中可以發現:
    1. 漆製微縮畫與聖像畫之間的關聯性密切。
    2. 漆製微縮畫繼承聖像畫的民俗性與技巧。
    3. 漆製微縮畫體現俄羅斯傳統民間題材。
    4. 漆製微縮畫傳達出俄羅斯烏托邦思想。

    我們可以了解到,漆製微縮畫雖是一門獨立的藝術,但它的根源和屬性來自於聖像畫及俄羅斯傳統民俗,包括:傳奇故事、風景、歌謠歷史及文學。所有的內容與生活分不開並且具有實用價值。這樣的實用性顯現在大盒、煙盒與匣子等實際物品上,跳脫與超越單純的藝術形式。畫作題材又融合了近東國家的特色,例如:波斯的傳奇故事。其中的「奇幻」因素造就漆製微縮畫的想像性與華麗感。並且擁有中國山水畫的散點透視特徵,螺旋構圖的結構讓觀者能將所有情節映入眼簾。
    此外,民間烏托邦思想也存在漆製微縮畫裡,烏托邦是無所不在的,它超越畫作原本的境界,帕列赫風景畫轉化成安逸令人並嚮往的所在之地。俄羅斯民族自古以來就擁有追尋理想境地的特性,而帕列赫微縮風景就成為觀者精神之依歸處。
    In a locality in Central Russia, on the periphery of Souzdal land there existed since 15 Century places where folk artistas produced icon paintings on the basis of the traditional works by ordained monks. Among three main areas (Ivanovo, Palekh, Mstera and Kholuy) where icon works are painted, Palekh has always been the most famous one catering for the wealthy clients. These Souzdal-type icons used to be the most widespread in pre-Revolutionary Russia. In 1922 a Palekh artist, Ivan Golikov, created a new art form being miniature painting of the lacquer box. Thus a new era of Palekh paintings began.
    This study investigates the historical development and social-economic background of Icon painting by folk artists which was banned in 1917 and its influence on the invention of lacquer miniature in 1922. The main conclusions of theses are as follows:
    1. Lacquer miniature is closely linked with Icon painting;
    2. Lacquer miniature inherits the skill and folk style of Icon painting;
    3. Lacquer miniature portrays the folk content of traditional Russia; and
    4. Lacquer miniature is connected to utopian thinking in Russian folk culture.
    As lacquer miniature is an independent art form, it originated from the tradition of icon paintings and Russian folk art. Its themes cover folk legends, scenery, folk songs, history as well as literature. In addition, it is also functional as shown in lacquer box and snuffbox which are of practical usage besides possessing artistic qualities. Interestingly, we also find that lacquer miniature have been influenced by oriental art. For example, exotic Persian Legend affects the patternn and image of lacquer miniature. In addition, traditional Bhinese nature painting also affects lacquer miniature with its multi-focal points and spiral structure to incorporate all painting context into sight.
    Last, but not least, utopia thinking is also built in the lacquer miniature. Palekh scenery paintings are presented as a dreamland that Russians were searching for. Palekh miniature has become the consolable as well as inspirational artistic form for its viewers.
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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