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|Other Titles: ||A study of folk utopia in old Russia|
|Authors: ||徐逸祥;Hsu, Yi-xiang|
|Keywords: ||烏托邦;民間文學;宇宙世界觀;理想地方;舊禮儀教派;東正教教義;漫遊思想;utopia;folklore;cosmology;ideal space;old believers;the orthodoxy doctrines;pilgrimage|
|Issue Date: ||2010-01-10 23:36:25 (UTC+8)|
烏托邦一詞是西方Utopia，其實是由「u」和「topia」兩部分組成的複合性名詞，「u」來自希臘文「ou」（not無、非）表示普遍否定，「topia」來自希臘文的「topos」（place，地，地方），意思是地方或地區，此兩部分合起來意指十分明晰，意即“沒有的地方”，相當於英文裡的「Nowhere」，漢語中與此類似的表達是莊子的“無何有之鄉”。同時，「u」也可以和希臘文中的「eu」聯繫起來，「eu」有好、完美的意思，於是「Utopia」也可以理解為「Eutopia」——美好的地方。 這個名詞的形成則是源於十六世紀初，來自於英國人湯瑪斯•摩爾（Thomas More）的《烏托邦》，其以遊記形式完成，描述烏托邦為一座理想島國，並且座落在與世隔絕的地方，外人難以接近，更難以發現，基於此，「烏托邦」本身即賦予一定的概念內容，這使它很容易就從一個虛構的島嶼名稱變成一個普世流行的概念。俄羅斯之民族獨特性，主要是由於階級社會的形成與發展，導致了民間文化與官方階層文化間差異的出現和強化，而俄羅斯之民間思想，自古以來，一直存在於俄羅斯民族中，早在遠古時期，古代俄羅斯人即內蘊其精神內涵，對於理想地方之探尋，乃是基於受現實世界之壓迫，進而形成俄羅斯民族追尋烏托邦－理想境地之民族特性。本論文主要以俄羅斯民間傳說佚事出發，進而分析其所賦予之民族特性，而關於俄羅斯民間文學最主要傳遞的方式為口傳文學，口傳文學不僅是後幾個世紀文化中的重要成分之一，而且也對俄羅斯民族產生了巨大的影響。而筆者對於本論文之實踐上，對於民間文學之特性，敘述並分析其中意涵，筆者試以說明：
Culture is the most important asset for every nation, and the national culture symbolizes human''s creation; that is to say, culture is the result of humans’ creativity. On the other hand, in the process of humans’ creativity, includes two basic categories－the material culture and the spiritual culture, the two kinds of cultures relate closely with each other.
This word－"Utopia" is originated from the west, actually "Utopia" is the compound noun which is composed by "u" and "topia" ; "u" comes from the Greek, "ou" (none) expressing the universal denials, and "topia" comes from the Greek too, "topos" (place) meaning a place or an area. These two parts frame the purpose which is extremely defined. Utopia is namely about "no place" , which is equal to the word "Nowhere" in English and also the one in Chinese with similar expression, which is from the philosopher－Zhuang-zi. At the same time, "u" also may relate with the Greek "eu" , "eu" means perfect ; thereupon, "Utopia" is also viewed as "Eutopia" － A perfect place. The noun was created in 16th century, which first appeared in the “Utopia” written by an English writer －Thomas More. The novel is completed by the form of travel notes, describing Utopia is the ideal island country, and located out of the real world. Therefore the bystanders are out of reach the island and unable to discover it. Based on this, " Utopia" itself is endued with a certain concept, which makes it easy to transform from the fictionalized name to an universal idea.
The national Russian uniqueness results from forming and developing a society of caste, which has caused and strengthened the difference between the folk culture and the official culture. Since the ancient times, Russian thoughts always exist in their nationality; the Russian embody its mental connotation which is the finding of the ideal place. This is based on the oppression from the real world, and then shape the Russian nationality－to quest where the Utopia（ideal region.）is.
This dissertation mainly embarks on the Russian folklore and then analyzes the national characteristics. The most basic communicated way of the Russian folk literature is oral literature. Besides, oral literature is not only one of the important elements in the following centuries in Russia, but also has had the huge influences on the Russian nationality.
I tried to describe and analyze the meanings and the features of Russian folklore:
（1）The features of the Russian folk utopia.
（2）Folklore and the culture of the high ranking.
（3）The historical formation of Russia and Utopian
thoughts among the ordinary Russian. Because of the
complicated development of the history and society in
Russia, it also makes the Utopian idea developed
（4）The religion in Russia.
（5）The practice of folk utopia.
|Appears in Collections:||[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文|
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