後冷戰時期美國以國家安全為由堅持發展NMD系統，不僅引起對各國的強烈反彈，更壓縮俄羅斯的安全與國際地位。NMD系統的發展不僅撕毀了蘇、美所訂立的ABM條約，更對核武平衡構成挑戰。有可能引發新一輪的軍備競賽。 本論文主要是利用文獻分析法與歷史研究法，探討俄羅斯面對美國建構NMD系統因應對策，其基本上以外交手段和軍事策略為兩大主軸。俄美之所以會在NMD與ABM條約上出現分歧，來自於美國企圖鞏固自己的單極強權地位。經濟力大不如前的俄羅斯，無法再投注龐大經費於技術之提升與擴張，必須選擇以最有效益的途徑抗衡美國的防禦性核武衝擊。 外交上，俄羅斯對外強調ABM條約對全球核武平衡的價值。國際上，採取分裂美國友邦及強化俄羅斯周邊國家的軍事議題合作。藉由國際反恐議題強化自身的國際地位與提升對等的俄美關係。軍事上，對外宣示適時動用核武的決心，並針對NMD的攔截盲點進行攻擊性核武的改進。最後是落實軍事體制的現代化，達到國家整體戰力之提升。 研究主題包含： 1. 釐清美國所建構之NMD的運作程序以及發展演進。 2. 探討在NMD的發展過程中，俄、美對此議出現之爭端。 3. 俄羅斯在因應爭端上之解決手段，或因時空的變遷作政策之調 整。 4. 俄羅斯政府對美國建構NMD之因應對策具體實現之情況。 In the post-Cold War era, the United States insisted on developing a national missile defense (NMD) system for national security, which not only caused strong discontent of countries, but further weakened security and international status of Russia. The development of NMD system also threatened nuclear balance and repudiated an Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty between the U.S. and the Russia. It might bring another arms race. By document analysis method and historical research method, the thesis explores what countermeasures Russia has to the NMD system. Basically, diplomacy and military strategy are main means. The reason there was a chasm between the U.S. and the Russia on the NMD and ABM was that the U.S. attempted to strengthen its status of world military power. With weakening economic strength, the Russia was unable to invest huge budget in enhancement and extension of technology; therefore, it must choose the most-effective measure to contend against defensive nuclear impact from the U.S. In diplomacy the Russia emphasized internationally the value of ABM Treaty for global nuclear balance. In international policy the Russia alienated the United State’s allies, strengthening military cooperation with its neighbors, and consolidating international status to enhance reciprocal relations with the U.S. by global anti-terrorism. In military affairs the Russia declared its determination to use nuclear weapon if necessary, undertaking improvement of nuclear weapon aimed for the weakness of NMD, and finally modernizing military system to enhance national defense.
The thesis pursues the following goals: 1.To clarify the realization of the NMD project by USA. 2.To study the contest between Russia and USA in relation to the NMD system. 3.To investigate the adjustments of Russia’s policy in the course of the above mentioned contest. 4.To explore in details the position of Russian government on the NMD issue.