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    Title: 恩琴在外蒙古活動之研究(1920-1921)
    Other Titles: A study of Ungern-Sternberg's activities in outer Mongolia (1920-1921)
    Authors: 楊詩馨;Yang, Shih-hsin
    Contributors: 淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士班
    馬良文;Maliavine, Vladimir
    Keywords: 恩琴;庫倫;蘇俄;中央蒙古帝國;Ungern Sternberg;Urga;Soviet Russia;Central Mongolian Empire
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:36:10 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   本論文主要研究恩琴1920-1921年間在外蒙古的活動。恩琴在外蒙獨立史上曾經扮演過極重要的角色。1921年2月他佔領了外蒙首都庫倫(現今之烏蘭巴托),並於3月份成立以活佛為領袖之外蒙獨立政府。恩琴成功的佔領外蒙引起蘇維埃政府的恐慌,不得不更加注意外蒙。1921年3月蒙古人民革命黨在蘇維埃共黨支持下佔領了恰克圖,並在買賣城成立了臨時政府。而恩琴佔領外蒙讓蘇維埃政府有合理的藉口在1921年7月9日正式佔領庫倫。

      恩琴佔領庫倫是要作為日後攻擊蘇俄領土的根據地。他在庫倫時藉由與其他白軍勢力的結合,曾經將勢力拓展至王庫倫、科布多及烏里雅蘇台等地區。而恩琴是極端的君主主義者,他曾經計畫成立一個中央蒙古帝國,這是種泛蒙古主義的思想。而這個中央蒙古帝國是必須結合所有蒙古民族,還有新疆、西藏甚至到中亞的吉爾吉斯。而恩琴認為能領導這個中央蒙古帝國的只有中國的皇帝,所以中央蒙古帝國的成立,首要任務是幫助中國恢復過去的帝王制度。而中央蒙古帝國在中國皇帝的領導下將是對抗蘇維埃革命勢力的最大後盾。恩琴計畫成功推翻蘇維埃政府後,要恢復俄羅斯的沙皇制度。但恩琴的反革命計畫並沒有成功,他的軍隊背叛了他還預謀將他殺害。1921年8月恩琴被紅軍逮捕,在9月被判處死刑。

      除了了解恩琴1920-1921年間的活動外,本論文得到兩個重要的發現:第一,恩琴在外蒙的活動與他暴虐的性格,都是受他獨特的宗教觀和政治觀的影響。第二,以往有許多學者都認為恩琴在外蒙的活動是受到日本的指使與援助的,但卻未提出可靠之證據。雖然日本在俄羅斯內戰時期支持過謝苗諾夫在外貝加爾地區成立政權,但是恩琴自從離開謝苗諾夫之後,在外蒙的活動是完全獨立的。
      This thesis deals with Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg'' s activities in Outer Mongolia during 1920-1921. He contributed greatly to the independence of Outer Mongolia. Having separated from Semenov he seized Urga in February 1921, and established an“Independent Government of Outer Mongolia” with Bogdo as its head in March 1921. Ungern’s activities became a serious concern for the Soviet government forcing the latter to pay more attention to Outer Mongolia. In March 1921, the Mongolian People'' s Revolutionary party organized by Russian Communists occupied Kyakhta and established a Provisional government in Maimaichen. Ungern’s invasion of Outer Mongolia provided a good excuse for Soviet Russia to occupy Urga in July 1921.
      Ungern made Urga his main base and planned to attack Soviet Russia. His authority was extended to Kobdo, Wang-Kuren and Uliassutai(Uliastai) through making alliances with the local White Russian’ s troops. Ungern was a devout monarchist, who intended to establish a “Central Mongolian Empire”. His thinking was deeply influenced by Pan-Mongolism. And this “Central Mongolian Empire” was to combine the whole territory of Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet and Kyrghyzstan. This “Central Mongolian Empire” was to be ruled by Chinese emperor. So the primary task of “ Central Mongolian Empire” was assistance to the restoration of monarchy in China. And the “Central Mongolian Empire” will expected to be the major force in resisting Russian revolution. Ungern planned to restore tsar’s regime in Russia as well. But he failed to raise an anti-revolutionary movements in Russia, his troops mutinied and finally he was seized by the Red Army in August 1921, brought to trial and executed in September 1921.
      Besides clarifying many circumstances of Ungern’s activities. this study has two important conclusions:Firstly, Ungern’s activities and his fierce character as a detailed analysis of his personality and behavior, were influenced by his political and in a sense quite peculiar religious views. Secondly, though in the past most historians believed that Ungern’s activities were instigated and supported by Japan primary sources do not provide convincing evidence of this opinion. Although Japan helped Semenov to consolidate his military control in Transbaikal region during the Russian civil war, Ungern acted in Mongolia on his own.
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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