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    Title: 俄羅斯跨國移入勞工之研究
    Other Titles: The study of migrant labors in Russia
    Authors: 吳怡欣;Wu, Yi-hsin
    Contributors: 淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士班
    魏百谷;Wei, Bai-ku
    Keywords: 移民勞工;薪資;人口;俄羅斯;Migrant labors;Wages;population;Russia
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:36:07 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 根據世界銀行2007年的報告,俄羅斯是第二大移民接受國,僅次於美國。國際移民對俄羅斯經濟發展而言是不可或缺的,其重要性不斷提升的最重要理由是俄羅斯人口危機的持續發展。因人口危機衍生的勞動力短缺問題,嚴重地牽動著俄羅斯國家未來的發展。引進經濟性的移民勞工是俄羅斯解決當前人口危機問題的立即性措施。但是外籍移民勞工畢竟與俄羅斯社會有若干差異,因此本研究試著探討移民勞工對俄羅斯造成之影響。研究發現如下:
    1. 移民勞工的數量隨著俄羅斯經濟的持續成長,2000年以後數量不斷上升的。在勞動市場上也發生與其他已開發國家一樣的狀況,亦即勞動市場分割的現象。
    2. 對薪資與就業層面的影響,因為勞動市場存在分割現象,且移民勞工從事的主要行業,是當地勞工所不願從事的工作,所以對於薪資與就業,並未出現顯著的影響。
    3. 合法的移民勞工有助於增加俄羅斯的國家財政稅收,但對於財政支出部分,因為現行法律規定,移民勞工無法享用社會福利,故支出方面尚不構成額外的負擔。
    4. 俄羅斯人對移民勞工的態度,會隨著當時的政治經濟情況而有所變化,移民勞工融入社會,需要依賴政府相關政策的輔助。關於社會層面的影響,目前仍未有明確的結果,但潛藏可能發生摩擦的危機,需要政府得宜的措施,幫助降低摩擦,促進融合。
    According to the World Bank report in 2007, Russia is second-largest migrant-receiving country in the world, second to U.S.A. The continuous population crisis has made international migration indispensable for the economy development in Russia. The shortage of labor forces generated from population crisis has seriously affected the development of this country that the introducing of migrant labor has become the immediate solution of population crisis. Considering the fundamental differences between the migrant labor and the Russian society, this study tries to explore impacts brought to Russia by the migrant labor. The findings are as follows:
    1. The quantity of migrant labor increased along with the growth of the economy in Russia after year 2000. Like other developed countries, the phenomenon of segmented labor market is emerging in Russia.
    2. There is no remarkable impact in the aspect of wages and employment, owing to the emergence of segmented labor market. Besides, the migrant labor is engaged mainly in the works disinclined by the local labor.
    3. The legal migrant labor helps to raise the tax revenue in Russia. But owing to the legal rules, migrant labor is not entitled to enjoy the social welfare, and thus causes no additional burden to the expenditure.
    4. The Russian''s point of view towards the migrant labor fluctuated according to the political and economical situation. The impact on the society is not explicit so far, but the crisis of collision between the migrant labor and the Russian society is not impossible. To help the migrant labor to integrate into the social and to reduce the possible crisis of collision, the establishment of appropriate policy by the government is critical.
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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