After Gulf War, Kosovu War, and U.S.-Iraq War, international military scholars believe that the rapid tempo of the war is due to advanced technology, such as C4ISR system, precision guided munitions, etc. Russian military speed up the tempo of military reform after suddenly realizing there is a gap of generations between Russian and American military. Military scholars have put forward the discourses of “Sixth Generation Warfare,” “Non-contact Warfare,” etc. In 1970s, Russian military take the lead to propose new military technology reform. However, arms race causes economy slowdown for almost thirty years, which is in the experience of the collapse of the Soviet Union and Chechen war. The aims of military reform are disarmament and military downsizing. After Putin inaugurated as Russian president, international energy price soars gradually and foreign exchange increase continually. Under this situation, Russian military not only keep disarming but also raise military spending in order to invest in conventional armed forces construction, reorganization, and Rapid reaction force (RRF) development. The present study is aimed at discussing the development of Russian military reform during the period of Yeltsin to Putin and the cause-effect between Chechen war and military reform.
The writer believes that under Yeltsin’s presidency, on the premise of NATO''s enlargement and Restoration of Russia, nuclear weapon is the only counter for Russian military to withstand NATO’s conventional armed forces invasion. Therefore, Yeltsin appointed Igor Sergeyev, owing to Strategic Missile Forces (SMF) origin, as defense minister and aimed at developing the policy of Strategic Missile Forces (SMF). However, this policy edged out the need of developing conventional armed forces and many Russian military were injured and killed in the Asymmetric Warfare - Chechen war. Since Putin has been inaugurated, he speeded up the development of high-tech weapons, maintained the deterrence of nuclear weapon, and strengthened conventional armed forces and rapid reaction force in order to face six-generation warfare.
Above hypothesis can be further developed into the following logically consequential sub-propositions:
1.The cause-effect between two Chechen wars and Russian military reforms
The policy of nuclear weapon development as the priority in Yeltsin period strangles the space of conventional armed forces development. Russian President Putin succeeds and uses pragmatic attitude to balance the development between conventional armed forces and nuclear weapon.
2.How Russian military should respond in the six-generation warfare?
Russian military speeds up the invention of advanced weapon system in order to respond in the six-generation warfare. In the meanwhile, they still have to raise the conventional armed forces and strengthen the traditional tactics. The traditional tactics cannot be completely abandoned in order to respond in the War on Terrorism which one army is much inferior to the other.