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    Title: 俄羅斯老人福利制度
    Other Titles: The elderly welfare systems in Russia
    Authors: 蔡鈴芳;Tsai, Ling-fang
    Contributors: 淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士班
    馬良文;Maliavine, Vladimir;賴兩陽;Lai, Leang-yang
    Keywords: 俄羅斯;老人;社會福利;社會保險;老人福利;Russia;elderly;Social welfare;social insurance;elderly welfare
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:35:56 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 「人口老化」是目前全球共同面臨的社會議題之一,醫療與科技的進步讓人類的壽命得以不斷的延長,降低死亡率;而社會的進步讓人民的生活品質提高,卻也加重人民的經濟負擔,導致許多年輕夫妻不願生育,生育率因而降低。「人口老化」帶給社會的影響最鉅的,是加重勞動人口在扶養比例上的負擔。因此政府必須針對老人制定出一套完善的社會福利措施,來因應其在退休後能保有基本的經濟、醫療照護、精神生活的保障。
    目前俄羅斯65歲以上老人佔總人口的比例為13.9%,已達到「高齡社會」的門檻。這讓俄國政府在近年來更加密切的關注對於退休老人的社會福利保障。普欽總統上任後更加積極的推廣與制定相關的福利政策。
    老年人的經濟保障基礎在於一個完善的退休金制度。現階段俄羅斯大部分的的福利制度多半沿襲自蘇聯的系統,但社會主義制度下全民性大規模的福利保障,讓政府背負著沉重的經濟負擔,俄羅斯政府接受世界銀行的建議,建立基礎、保險、儲蓄三支柱的退休金制度,搭配精算制度,不僅可以減輕政府的負擔,也可以達到所得重分配的效果。只不過政府「福利貨幣化」政策的實施,取消許多老年人在生活上的實物補助,改由津貼方式來補給,讓許多退休老兵與老人走上街頭抗議,他們認為這項政策對他們來說是加重他們的生活負擔。
    一個國家的健康照護制度完善與否,關係著國民的生活條件與健康。老年人除了基本的經濟保障外,還需要完整的生活照護,尤其是罹患慢性病的老人對此的需求又更高。根據俄羅斯的國家醫療保險法,國民只要依規定繳納保費,便可以享有免費、基礎的醫療資源,但制度本身仍有許多缺失,如:資源分配不均、醫療品質與效率參差不齊、制度立法不公等,這部份仍是俄國政府必須努力的目標。而在老人照護機構部分,俄國有各類型的休養所、老人照護之家,老年人可以照自己的需求選擇合適的療養與照護機構。
    在經濟與健康需求都解決過後,必須重視老年人社會參與的權利。為此,政府必須規劃完善的終身學習機構,貫徹活到老學到老的精神,如此一來老年人不僅不會與社會脫節,也能藉此拓展交友圈與人際關係。但俄國政府到近年來才開始重視老人的精神生活,因此相關的社會教育機構也沒有很普遍,仍有待加強。
    整體來說,制定老人福利政策必須兼顧老人在經濟、健康、心靈上的保障,俄羅斯政府也積極的朝這個目標前進,試圖找出合乎自己國家的福利政策,這是一段漫長的改革路途。躍升為「金磚四國」之ㄧ的俄羅斯,除了國家經濟的提升外,更應該重視國民的福利。
    “Aging Population” is one of the main issues that modern societies are facing. The advancing of medical technology not only decreases mortality, but also increases our standards of living. However, there are disadvantages of the advancements, which cause young couples unwilling to raise children. The main effect of population aging is increasing burden on working people. Therefore, the government needs to build a new social policy to ensure citizen’s retirement life.
    Russia is already an aged country according to WHO. This situation makes the Russian government to pay more attention in order to protect the pensioners’ retirement life. Vladimir Putin, the president of Russia is more active in promoting welfare system.
    Most welfare policies are from the USSR system, but these policies cause huge burdens to the Russian government. The government accepts suggestions from the World Bank, that build a pension system based on a “ Three-Pillar Model.” This new system not only decreases the burdens on the Russian government, but also can redistribute incomes. Never the less, it has serious flaws, too. Instead of actual help, elders get the national allowance. They think that the new system doesn’t help in their daily life, but actually makes their life harder, so they prefer the old one.
    Except the economic security, elders also needs complete daily care, especially the chronic patients. Russians could get free medical resource, as long as they pay the insurance bill. However, there are still many defects to the system, and that’s why the Russian government should keep working on. There are several kinds of elderly care institutions, elders are able to choose one, which suit their own needs.
    After society elders’ need in both economy and health, the rights of social participation all important, too. The government should build some life-learning institutions, so the elders can keep connection with the society. The pity is that the government doesn’t yet face the importance of elders’ spirits positively. In conclusion, building a welfare system for the elders needs to secure economy, health and spirit. When improving the country’s economic situation, the Russian government should advance its citizens’ welfare.
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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