English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Items with full text/Total items : 49194/83570 (59%)
Visitors : 7091232      Online Users : 34
RC Version 7.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library & TKU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw:8080/dspace/handle/987654321/30350


    Title: 從民主過渡模式探討中國村民自治運作的未來發展
    Other Titles: The development of self governance in rural China : the perspective of the democratic transition model
    Authors: 遠藤崇之;Endo, Takayuki
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    陳建甫;Chen, Chien-fu
    Keywords: 中國農村;村民自治;國家與社會關係;民主過渡模式;情節分析;Rural China;Villager’s Self-governance;State and Societal relations;the Democratic Transition model;Scenarios analysis
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:35:12 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:  在1978年,中國在農村推動家庭聯產承包制後,造成「政社合一」的人民公社體制無法維持,進而解體。人民公社的解體,表示集體經濟財產有效管理功能的喪失,甚至於造成基層政權的一種「空白」。於是,黨中央為強化地方基層權力機制,遂實施 《村民委員會組織法》以賦予農村社會與村民「自治」形式的基層政權。
     由於村民自治對國家與農村社會的關係產生極大的影響,因此,本研究首先檢視中國農村實行的村民自治制度的形成、運作與過程,以瞭解中國農村基層的國家與社會關係。其次,我們修正Przeworski所提出的民主過渡模式,來探討中國村民自治的未來發展方向。該理論指出不論任何威權主義政權,朝向民主過渡的過程都是從「自由化」開始,其中對專制政府造成威脅的不是合法性的崩潰,而是與霸權對抗的組織,其組織為了一個與現有的政權有所區別,而進行另一集體的行動。
     研究發現民主過渡模式部分適用中國村民自治的實際運作,鄉村幹部對村民自治放權或介入,是處在「維持獨裁現狀」(status quo dictatorship:SDIC)或社會自律性更增大的分歧點。假如,農村社會的社會力量被國家體系納入,這便是Przeworski提出的「基礎較擴的獨裁」(broadend dictatorship:BDIC)。假如,農村社會的自律性更增大,而使農村社會走向「市民社會」的自主組織和封閉型的國家制度間的斷裂分歧點。到此分歧點,國家將面臨無法整合農村社會的價值和利益等問題。這個階段是銜接民主過渡、起義,國家的鎮壓導致「基礎較窄的獨裁」(narrow dictatorship:NDIC)的分歧點。
     村民自治同時也對中國農村國家與社會關係,產生另一新的農村社會組織與動力,可能會對未來中國政治發展有關鍵性的影響。透過情節分析,我們提出幾個重要的因素包括:鄉村關係、兩委問題、法團主義(corporatism)、市民社會、中國農民的維權行動等,並歸納出傾向維持獨裁現狀之路、走向基礎較擴的獨裁之路、走向民主擴大之路、以及走向中國社會陷入風險之路等四種未來政治發展的可能性情境。
    最後,本研究認為農村社會自主組織產生力量的興起,將會讓中國陷入一種新的政治危機。農村社會力量的增長使黨國體制與社會的利益關係和價值觀之間產生摩擦。而社會力量所產生政治不穩定的狀態給予國家領導人更大的壓力。受到此種社會力量的壓力下,假如國家領導人決定更開放政治空間,最後導致的是民主過渡。
     相反的,假如中國政府決定鎮壓社會力量,鎮壓導致的是政治空間的縮小,就是村民自治的功能異化,甚至,假如鎮壓失敗,導致社會力量的起義,開始政治動盪。因為中國人口絕大部分集中於農村,所以農村不穩定時,全中國一定受到其影響。國家與社會之間成立民主過渡協議是最理想,但是,一旦決定鎮壓社會,將無法避免政治動盪發生的可能性。
     Though, from the CPC’s perspective, the core leading position of the party hasn’t changed, nevertheless, since the China’s policy of reform and open of 1978, the premise of social control by the collectivism of the economy for its party-state system has gradually shaken.
    After the CPC’s 3rd full meeting of the 11th Central committee in 1978, China implemented “the household contract responsibility system” in rural villages. This implementation makes the people’s commune system which is “the regime and civic organizations as one” no longer maintainable and it soon fell apart. The collapse of the people’s commune indicates the loss of effective control over the collective economical property, and even caused some sort of “vacancy” in the regime’s basic level.
     Then the National People’s Congress passed “the Organic Law of Villager’s Committees (for Trial Implementation)” at 1987 and passed its revised version “the Organic Law of Villager’s Committees” in 1998, now on legal foundations, in China’s villages started the reconstruction of the basic level regime, which centered in the form of “Villager’s Self-governance”
     The so-called “Villager’s Self-governance” system includes civil codes of “democratic election, democratic decision making, democratic management, and democratic supervision” (referred as “the four democratics”) which is represented by the direct election of the Villager’s Committee. Therefore, it has made a major influence on the relationship between the State and the Rural Society, and this influence further passed on to the Rural Society, and on the legitimacy and the political structure of the State’s Power on its basic level.
     This study focuses on the “Villager’s Self-governance system” practiced in rural China, its process of formation and actual execution, and on whether Adam Przeworski’s Democratic Transition Model is applicable to the case of China’s Villager’s Self-governance, and by these factors to discuss the direction of future development of the Villager’s Self-governance in China. This paper addresses the four possibilities of future paths of development, which are, respectively, remaining on status quo dictatorship, the path of broadened dictatorship, the path of enlarged democracy, and the path of putting China’s society in risk.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    0KbUnknown154View/Open

    All items in 機構典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library & TKU Library IR teams. Copyright ©   - Feedback