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    Title: 胡錦濤主政後的對臺政策及其對兩岸關係之影響
    Other Titles: China's Taiwan policy and its effect on the relationship between Taiwan and China after Hu Jintao came into power
    胡錦濤主政後的對台政策及其對兩岸關係之影響
    Authors: 瞿毓峯;Chu, Yu-feng
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    潘錫堂;Pan, His-tang
    Keywords: 兩岸關係;反分裂法;八一七公報;江八點;胡四點;Cross-Strait Relations;U.S.-PRC Joint Communique 817;Jiang Zemings 8 Points;Hu’s 4 Points;Anti-Secession Law
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:34:46 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 自二OO二年年底胡錦濤從江澤民手中接任「總書記」至二OO四年9月接掌「中央軍委會主席」,胡錦濤正式地成為中共第四代集國家、軍事、對臺決策的領導人。二OO六年1月,中共方面宣稱不再紀念「江八點」,未來對臺政策則以「胡四點」為主要政策依據,更顯示出,胡錦濤在權力逐步穩固下,非但主導中共對臺政策,在其靈活兩手策略、軟硬兼施的運作下,更成為主導兩岸關係發展的關鍵人物。
    從中共對臺政策的歷史來看,「八一七公報」標誌著中共對臺政策開始以「和平統一」取代「武力解放」的政策主軸,並在鄧小平的「改革開放」政策推展下,逐漸開啟了兩岸的交流活動。一九九O年代,在鄧小平逐漸淡出權力核心,中共第三代領導人江澤民開始主導兩岸關係的發展,隨著「改革開放」政策的成功,中共逐漸在國際上嶄露出經濟發展與政軍實力。兩岸關係則在一九八O年代初蔣經國總統「開放大陸探親」政策,以及其接任者李登輝總統在一九九一年設立「國家統一委員會」,通過「國家統一綱領」,進而促成兩岸在一九九三年新加坡的「辜汪會談」,並協議在一九九五年進行第二次辜汪會談。在中共對經濟高度發展以及兩岸關係緩和之際,江澤民於一九九五年初發表「爲促進祖國統一大業的完成而繼續奮鬥」即所謂的「江八點」,然而,卻在一九九五年6月李登輝總統訪問美國母校康乃爾大學,引起中共不悅,定調為臺灣偏向獨立路線,兩岸關係至此停擺。至胡錦濤上任後,一開始以所謂的「鄧小平精神」與「江八點」成為其對臺政策的主軸。隨著其權力的穩固,遂於二OO三年發表了第一次的「胡四點」,與二OO五年3月發表第二次「胡四點」,主要強調對臺「一個中國」原則、堅決反對臺獨等策略。
    二OO五年以來,中共一方面於年初制定「反分裂法」,並於內容第八條提到,如臺灣有走向獨立的舉動,則不排除以武力解放臺灣的條文出現,充分顯示出其對臺專斷黷武的一面;另一方面,旋即在4、5、7月間,分別邀訪臺灣在野政黨至大陸訪問,頻頻釋出善意,推出包括臺灣水果登陸、臺生就學優惠、臺商投資優惠貸款、設立臺商法律諮詢服務中心。事實上,胡錦濤執政後所面臨的諸多統治問題之根源亦在經濟問題,因此,探究其對臺經濟軟手拉攏,除著眼在兩岸統一的前提下,更有促進內部經濟發展的重要利益; 因此,二OO六年中共推出的「海峽西岸經濟區」的發展與建設即是其中明顯的例子。
    總體來看,胡錦濤對臺政策是在「一個中國」原則不變下,以「寄希望於臺灣同胞」為政策主軸,並用「軟硬兩手」,「以經促統」、「以民逼官」,孤立執政的民進黨政府,並在「操之在我」的政策議題上,大方對臺釋出利多;同時制定「反分裂法」,加強進行飛彈部署,顯示出其政策「軟的更軟,硬的更硬」之主要特色。
    Since 2002, Hu Jintao took charge of the president of the state from Jiang Zemin''s hand, and the chairman of the "Central Armed Force Commission" in the September 2004. Hu Jintao officially becomes the Chinese Communist Party’s fourth national leader , who is in charge of the country, the military, and the policy-making. In January, 2006, the Chinese Communist Party declared that instead of commemorating "the Jiang’s 8.point", in the future "Hu''s 4 points “will primarily become the guidelines of China''s Taiwan Policy, which demonstrated that Hu Jintao will be gradually stable in the power and started to lead decision-making of Taiwan Policy. Since president Hu Jintao took in power, what he had to deal with the Taiwan affairs in its “two-face ,using both persuasion and threats under the operation of Taiwan Policy, demonstrates that he''s not only the leader of Chinese Communist Party but also the essential role who leads the cross-strait relations’ development.

    Looked from the history of Chinese Communist Party''s Taiwan Policy since " U.S.-PRC JOINT COMMUNIQUE 817 in 1982 " , Chinese Communist Party''s Taiwan Policy is starting the substitution from "the military liberation" to "the peaceful unification". After "the reform and open policy" was addressed by President Deng Xiaoping, it has gradually opened the cross-strait cooperative exchanges. In the beginning of 1990s, with the gradually fade out of the authority core of Deng Xiaoping, Chinese Communist Party''s third generation leader Jiang Zemin start to lead the power of decision-making in cross-strait relations. With the success of "the reform and open policy", the Chinese Communist Party gradually reveals it’s growing power in it''s international role, economical development and even it''s political and armed force. In the end of 1980s , President Jiang Jingguo adressed the "opening of mainland relatives visiting " policy, and then it''s successor President Lee Denghu set up "the national unified committee" (NUC)in 1991, and passed "the national unified guiding principle", which facilitated both sides of strait to begin "Gu- Wang Conference" in Singapore in 1993, and made the agreement to hold the conference again in 1995. With the improvement of cross-strait relation and Mainland China’s booming economic development , President Jiang Zemin addressed the “JIANG ZEMINS EIGHT POINTS ON TAIWAN” at the beginning of 1995─ so-called "the Jiang''s 8 points." However, President Lee Denghui visited his American alma mater Corrneill university in June 1995, which caused the Chinese Communist Party to regard it as Taiwan’s way to the national-indeperndent. Therefore, the cross-strait conference failed to hold. After Hu Jintao''s in power, he expressed that he will follow "Deng Xiaoping’s spirit" and "Jiang''s 8 point as its guidelines of Taiwan Policy. However, along with the stability of Hu''s power, he had then addressed the first "Hu''s 4 points" in 2003, and the second one in March ,2005, to put the emphasis on "One China Principle”, firmly to oppose the independence of Taiwan, as well as delivered the strategy of "sent hopes to the Taiwan compatriot".

    Since 2005, the Chinese Communist Party on the one hand has made "the anti-secession law" in the beginning of the year, and mentioned that the "Taiwan independence " secessionist forces should act under any name or by any means to cause the fact of Taiwan''s secession from China, or that major incidents entailing Taiwan''s secession from China should occur, or that possibilities for a peaceful reunification should be completely exhausted, the state shall employ non-peaceful means and other necessary measures to protect China''s sovereignty and territorial integrity. In the eighth point; On the other hand, in April, May, July, the CCP’s President Hu separately invited the Taiwan’s political opposition parties to visit China, and released the advantages like, promoting Taiwan youths to study in China with benefit, giving Taiwan’s fruitcultivers, the loan on favorable terms for Taiwanese businessman''s invests, and setting up the service center of ” Taiwanese businessman consultation of law affairs.” In fact, since Hu Jintao has been in power, many dominant questions which he faces are result from the economic problem. Therefore, while analyzing the goals of his soft hand strategy, we should focus not only on the premise of the unit of cross-strait but its advantages to facilitate China’s internal economy development. The obvious example is the promotion by the Chinese Communist Party of "the Strait West bank economic zone" in 2006

    Overall looked that, President Hu Jintao’s Taiwan Policy with the invariable "One China Principle", take "places hopes in the Taiwan compatriot" as the policy main axle, and uses " stick-and-carrot strategy ", " using business to pressure the government and using its economy to achieve unification" to deliberately exclude the Taiwan government from exercising its authority to participate in relevant affairs ", isolating the being in power Democratic Progressive Party government, and release those policy benefit in which "holds it in me" to give Taiwanese of advantages; Simultaneously formulates "the anti-succession law", deploy missiles to demonstrated its policy main characteristic been "soft being softer, and hard is harder".
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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