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    Title: 虛雲法師的禪法及其影響
    Other Titles: Hsu-yun's theory of ch'an and it's influences
    Authors: 林培聖;Lin, Pei-shen
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    楊惠男;郭建中
    Keywords: 虛雲;禪宗;參禪;念佛法門;觀音法門;Hsu-yun;n Buddhism;Ch n meditation
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:34:20 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 虛雲法師於清朝道光二十一年(1840),出生在中國福建泉州府,祖籍湖南湘鄉,圓寂於民國四十八年(1959)享年一百二十歲。從小就有出家離塵之志,遂於十九歲至福建鼓山湧泉寺出家修行,禮常開老人披剃,歸依妙蓮和尚受具足戒,成為一位真正的出家人。
    虛雲法師喜愛禪宗,學習參究「念佛是誰」的話頭,專究一門深入,歷經三十七年潛修苦行,終於悟證自心本性,本來清淨,本來空寂,徹見世間一切皆虛幻不實,沒有一樣事物永恆不變,惟有清淨的本心是不生不滅。世人執著不能永恆的事物,以致患得患失,這是煩惱與痛苦的來源,他領悟只有回歸清淨本心,不執著不分別,是唯一斷除煩惱與痛苦的方法。他悟證之後,願與大眾分享,展開六十年弘揚佛法,利益群眾的佛教事業,講經說法,開壇傳戒,教授參禪,若有不契合者,另教以念佛法門,沒有門戶之見,心胸開豁。弘法期間修建大小寺院庵堂八十餘處,尤其復建雲南雞足山迎祥寺(祝聖寺)、昆明華亭寺、福建鼓山湧泉寺、廣東曹溪南華寺、雲門山大覺寺、江西雲居山真如禪寺等六大禪宗祖庭最為顯著。當時的禪宗,除臨濟宗與曹洞宗外,其餘的溈仰宗、法眼宗、雲門宗皆衰微已久,他稟承臨濟宗,又另繼承其他四宗使令不絕,繼往而開來,貢獻甚大。
    弘化期間,適逢國家世局動盪,社會不安,民生困苦,因此面臨諸多艱難,不但不屈不撓,愈挫愈勇,逢順境不自慢,遇逆受屈不瞋恚,超越順逆兩境,歷經十五坐道場,未曾一日居住方丈室,終身也未曾有一椽一瓦為私人所有之別業,數十年一杖上山,也一杖下山,心裡毫無罣礙,解脫自在,對世間一切能看得破放得下,行一切事不著一切事,不起心不動念,永遠保持清淨的真心,所以能成就一生道業立下典範,被譽為近代佛教四大名師之一。
    Venerable Hsu-Yun was born in Chuan-Zhou County, Fujian Province, in the 20th year of the Dao-Guang reign of the Ching dynasty, i.e. 1840 AD. His family originated in Xiang-Xiang, Hunan Province. He died in 1959 at the age of 120. Since his childhood, he aspired to a life beyond the earthly world. At the age of nineteen, he embarked on a religious life at Yung-Quan Temple at Gu Mountain, Fujian Province, where he was formally received as a novice after shaved by Master Chang-Kai and pledged adherence to the teachings of the Buddha with Master Miao-Lian as the witness. He had since become a Buddhist monk.
    Hsu-Yun found himself attracted to the teachings of Ch’an Buddhism and was devoted to the study of “who is the chanting one.” Thirty-seven years of solitary study and stoic living eventually led him to the realization that the mind was originally empty and clear. Everything there was illusory; nothing was constant. The only way out of worry and pain was through giving up dwelling on things and through an indiscriminative mind. To share what he had with the general public, he set out spreading the ideas of Buddhism, hoping to benefit others, an effort that lasted for sixty years. He explained the Buddhist texts, preached, established a lecture to pass on the teachings, and guided the way to Ch’an mediation. For those who did not seem to be benefiting from his approach, who were open-minded and having no prejudice for other sects, he would teach them approaches to Nembutsu practice instead. Over his decades of endeavor, more than 80 temples of all sizes and of all kinds were built, the most important ones being the reconstruction of Yin-Xiang Temple (Zhu-Shen Temple) at Ji-Zu Mountain, and Hua-Ting Temple at Kun-Ming, both in Yunnan Province, Yung-Quan Temple at Gu Mountain, Fujian Province, Nan-Hua Temple at Cao-Xi and Da-Jue Temple at Yun-Men Mountain, both in Guangdong Province, and Zhen-Ru Temple at Yun-Ju Mountain, Jiangxi Province. These temples were the six most famous of Ch’an Buddhism. By the time of Hsu-Yun, three of the five Ch’an Buddhism sects had been in decline, including Gui-Yang sect, Fa-Yan sect, and Yun-Men sect. The two exceptions were Lin-Ji sect and Cao-Dong sect. He based his ideas on Lin-Ji sect but also revived the other four sects, significantly contributing to Ch’an Buddhism as one who passed on the teachings of the old masters and inspired future generations.
    In the years of the Hong-Hua reign, the country was in desperate condition and the people had little peace of mind and lived in poverty. The Master was faced with frequent challenges, but he never gave up and saw failures as the drive to go on. Not feeling proud when things went the desired way and not losing his temper when frustrated, he had been freed from the control of the environment. He had as many as fifteen meditation sessions, but never even rested in the room for masters of his rank. Taking nothing more than he had brought, he had none for himself. There was no such thing that he could not get over, and was happy wherever he was. Nor was there anything that bothered him. For everything he did, he would not dwell on it. Nor could he be tempted into anything. His mind was always clear and pure. These made him who he was and earned him the reputation as one of the four greatest Buddhist masters of recent history.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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