中國自1996年頒布的《中華人民共和國行政處罰法》正式引入聽證開始，聽證活動已開始逐步走入了中國大陸人民的生活中。1998年5月11日實施的《中華人民共和國價格法》對價格聽證做出了明確規定，老百姓可以通過參與聽證活動，為物價的設定發表意見。2000年通過的《中國人民共和國立法法》又規定：「在行政法起草過程中，為廣泛聽取意見，可以採取聽證會的形式。」目前己有30多個具立法權的立法機構採用了立法聽證。2004年7月1日實施的《中華人民共和國行政許可法》，其中一個重要內容就是確立聽證程序，從而不僅完善了聽證的實體內容，也完善了程序上的內容。此後，聽證已成為中國大陸行政、立法活動，不可或缺的重要一環。 本研究旨在藉由探討中國大陸聽證制度的演進過程以及民主法治國家聽證制度的標準程序，來建立一套聽證執行成效的衡量指標。並以此指標來分析中國大陸目前各領域聽證制度的發展情形。除了進行法規制度分析外，尚將就所蒐集之100則聽證案例，藉由已建立之衡量指標來進行實證分析。且由於案例數量以行政聽證中的價格聽證及立法聽證為最大宗，共佔80則，故本研究將以價格聽證和立法聽證為主軸。 經由上述聽證制度與實證的比較分析後，總結歸納中國大陸聽證制度發展上的限制與挑戰，以及聽證對中國大陸政治體制所造成的影響。 The public hearing has become part of citizens’ life in China since “Law of the People’s Republic of China on Administrative Penalty” was enacted in 1996. “Price Law of the People’s Republic of China,” enacted in May 11th 1998, clearly defined that citizens’ are able to express their opinions by participating public hearings. “Law of the People''s Republic of China on Legislation”, passed in 2000, also pointed out that “in the course of drafting administrative regulations, the opinions from relevant organs, organizations and citizens shall be solicited extensively. The solicitation of opinions may be conducted in such forms as discussion meeting, seminar and public hearings.” Currently there are more than 30 legislative institutions with the right of law enactment that adopt the form of hearing. One of the most important contents of “Administrative Permission Law of the People’s Republic of China”, promulgated in July 1st 2004, is to stipulate the procedure of public hearing. From then on, both the content and procedure of the public hearing have been legally stipulated. Therefore, the public hearing has become one of the integral parts for the functioning of both the administrative and legislative systems of the People''s Republic of China.
The purpose of this thesis is to establish a set of measurement for evaluating China’s public hearing by studying the evolution of China’s hearing system and the standard procedure of hearing system in other democratic countries. Such a measurement of hearing is used to evaluate the development of various institutions of public hearing in China. In addition to analyzing existing public hearing institutions, this thesis also collects 100 cases of public hearing and evaluates these cases with the measurement standard built mentioned above. As price hearings and legislative hearings account for 80 of the 100 collected public hearing cases, this thesis shall focus on these two categories for further case analysis. By conducting such empirical and comparative analyses, in conclusion this thesis shall discuss the limitations and challenges of the public hearing in China, and the implications of public hearing for China’s political system.