After the end of Cold War, the collapse of the Soviet Union caused China to adopt the reform and open-door policy. China gradually shifted their focus from traditional military-first security to non-traditional security threat. China’s new security concept is based on mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and cooperation. China advocates extending the security cognition from traditional military field to non-traditional security fields including political, economic, social and cultural. In the measures to implement security, China advocates a safe cooperation, taking trust instead of doubt, dialogue instead of confrontation, hopes to maintain common security on the basis of mutual benefit through dialogues in the economic, political, military, and other fields.
China is in a transition period from a planned economy to a socialist market economy, the current development will be a very important turning point for the goal of reaching the level of medium-developed country in 2050. China’s economic development plan has estimated oil consumption. The oil consumption structure and simple sources of supply are potential negative factors on the security of oil supply. The foreign policy on oil supply will be a key element to ensure a stable security of oil supply especially while increase of oil import becomes an essential measure to solve China’s oil supply security dilemma.
China’s strategy of oil supply security focuses on the diversification of supplies sources, obtainment, and transportation. In domestic, China strengthen its safe supply chain of oil by multidirectional channels, and decrease the dependence on oil import; besides, China pushes “oil diplomacy” by Chinese leaders’ active visits abroad with diplomacy, adopts strategy of globalization and diversification to create new tendency of China’s oil diplomacy.
In order to ensure economic development and oil transportation security, break the Malacca dilemma; China think they should exploit oil resource in Central Asia with the assistance of Shanghai Cooperation Organization, moreover, should adopt the string of pearls strategy to really reach the goal of breaking through blockades of sea transportation in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean for long. Therefore, China’s grand strategy in the 21th century must rely on Central Asia and confront two Oceans trying to solve the Malacca Dilemma. The development and interaction of strategic factors for Indian Ocean strategy will influence the elements of China’s future national economic security and stability.