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    Title: 中國大陸大學軍事訓練之研究
    Other Titles: The study on the military training in PRC's university
    Authors: 朱崇義;Chu, Chung-i
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    趙春山;Chao, Chun-shan
    Keywords: 學生軍訓;軍事思想;軍事理論;全民國防教育;Student’s Military Training;Military Belief;military Theory;Civil-Defense Education
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:34:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中國大陸學生軍訓,開始於20世紀50年代。1955年7月,經過第一屆全國人民代表大會第二次會議審議頒發《中華人民共和國兵役法》,第一次從法律上對學生軍訓作了規定。首先在北京體育學院、北京鋼鐵學院進行試點。1955 至1957年間,依據《中華人民共和國兵役法》的規定,先後在全國127所中等學校進行了學生軍訓試點。
    60年代初,國務院批准全國53個大、中城市的38所高等院校和70所高級中學或中等專業學校的一年級學生進行了軍訓試點。文化大革命期間學生軍事訓練中斷。共產黨第十一屆三中全會以後,開展學生軍訓時機日趨成熟。1981年下頒發第11號文件,指示高等院校要把學生軍訓納入教學計畫。1984年,第六屆人大二次會議通過並頒發了新的《兵役法》,把學生軍事訓練單列一章,充分體現了國家對學生軍訓的重視。1985年至1996年,10餘年來已有近500所高等院校和近3000所中等學校開展了學生軍訓。2001年7月,國務院辦公廳、中央軍委辦公廳頒發第48號文件轉發了《普通高等學校和高級中學開展學生軍事訓練工作的意見》,11月,教育部、中央軍委聯合在天津召開“全國學生軍訓工作會議”,顯示自1985年開始,歷經16年的學生軍訓「試點」工作的結束,同時也代表學生軍訓進入制度化和新的發展階段。
    高等院校實施學生軍訓工作,遵照各項相關法律與有關指示文件,要求掌握毛澤東、鄧小平、江澤民、胡錦濤等領導人的軍事思想理論精義,學習完整國防思想、解放軍優良傳統,堅持共產黨的領導,著重於軍事理論與軍事技能訓練,為中國人民解放軍培養預備役軍官及後備兵員。並且增強學生的國防觀念與國家安全意識,強化愛國高尚情操與集體主義觀念,加強組織紀律性,培養百折不撓的意志與堅忍不拔毅力,提高學生綜合素質以及擴大知識面,為國家培養優秀人才,建立學生關心國家、民族的榮辱興衰、生死存亡的大事,達成「富國強兵」的國防建設目標。
    The military training in PRC’s University commenced from 1950s. In July 1955, the first National General Representative Assembly in its second round meeting deliberated PRC’s Military Services Law. This is the first time to stipulate students’ military training by law. Beijing Physical College and Beijing Iron & Steel College were the first two to have a trial, and then from 1955 to 1957, the experiment goes to 127 high schools accordingly.
    In the early 1960s, the state department approved the first grade students of 38 high schools and 70 junior high/ junior specialized schools in the 53 big and medium cities around the country to take the trial. The trial was broken down during culture revolution. The time for the students to have military training comes to maturity after eleventh community party general assembly. Document #11 designated higher level educational institutes to put military training courses into teaching plan in 1981. The sixth National General Representative Assembly issued a new Military Services Law which brings students’ military training courses out to a single chapter. The country values students’ military training so much, from 1985 to 1996, therefore, more than 500 high schools and 3000 medium schools had developed the courses. In July 2001, the office of state department and the office of central military committee announced document # 48 which transmitted the opinion of work of students’ military training in the medium and high school. The department of education and central military committee convened a “conference of national students’ military training review” in Tianjin in November 2001. Undergoing more than a decade, the trail of students’ military training go to its own end and a new era is expanding.
    According to the regulations and documentations, students’ military training was asked for to fellow the essence of military ideology of Mao Ze Dong, Deng Xiao Ping, Jiang Ze Min, and Hu Jin Tao. The students had to learn the idea of national defense, the old traditions of PLA, insisting on community parties’ leading, and the theories and skills of military. All of this are preparing for the PLAs’ need in the future, increasing the idea of national defense and security, strengthening patriotic and collectivism, intensifying organizational principle, cultivating volition and patience, improving students’ quality and knowledge. In order to reach the goal of “to make country rich and to build up military power,” it is necessary to bring up high level of human resources, to build the students’ concept to concern with the national affairs, the life and death of nationality, and the rise and decline of the country.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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