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    Title: 中共高等教育「國防生」政策之研究
    Other Titles: The study of national defense students project in higher educational policy in China
    Authors: 李俊佑;Li, Chun-yu
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    楊景堯;Yang, Ching-yao
    Keywords: 高等教育;軍事教育;國防生;Higher Educational Policy;National Defense Students Project
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:33:32 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中共「國防生」主要是由軍隊有關單位依托普通高等院校,從參加全國高考的高中畢業生及在校大學生中選拔培養的青年學生,其在校期間,須接受必要的軍政訓練,畢業後按協定到軍隊工作。其設計理念與美國預備軍官訓練團(Reserve Officers Training Corps,簡稱ROTC)制度極為類似。

    中共自2000年起陸續在全國簽約高校實行「國防生」政策,截至2007年底,與軍隊簽約培養國防生的地方高校達116所,累計招生已達6.5萬人,在校生近4.8萬人,預計到2010年,依托地方高效培養軍隊幹部的比例將可達60%左右,其中國防生數量佔三分之二以上,簽約的重點高校達到120所以上。

    中共軍事學歷教育著重學員生「通識」能力的養成與精進,而任職教育則強調軍事「專才」的培訓與適用;提供軍事學歷的教育單位,除軍方自身的各類軍事院校外,近年更廣泛與民間高等院校建立協作關係,依托民間教育體系及資源為軍方培育人才。

    為迎接新軍事革命的挑戰,世界各國軍隊紛紛加速高素質軍事人才的培養工作。從軍事人才培養模式來看,依托國民教育培養軍事人才,是目前世界許多國家軍事教育發展的趨勢,其特點強調利用國民教育的資源力量,提高軍事教育的水準,使教育資源配置合理化,以尋求較佳的經濟和社會效益。

    中共「國防生」政策雖對推動部隊現代化建設、改善人才知識結構頗具助益,但同時亦在人員的教育管理工作方面帶來許多新的問題,凸顯該政策在實行過程中,仍存有整體制度設計、部隊環境及學生個人因素等限制,若未能妥善因應尋求解決之道,恐降低政策推行成效或衍生負面效應。
    “Students for National Defense” in China are young students selected from high school graduates taking national college entrance exam and university undergraduates. Not only military school, some folk school also provide academic training for military. Those students will have both the military and political training in their college time, and then serve in the military after graduation according to their contracts. The basic concept of the system is similar to ROTC, Reserve Officers Training Corps, in USA.

    The project of “Students for National Defense” has already been implemented continually in assigned universities nationwide since 2000. Until the end of 2007, 116 universes have already signed the contract with military, recruited accumulatively 65,000 students, and had approximately 48,000 enrolled students. In 2010, the proportion for military officers trained by universities will be approximately 60%, and more than 2/3 will be the graduates of students for national defense; moreover, there will be more than 120 universities signed the contract with military.

    China’s academic education in military training focuses on developing and refining the ability of general knowledge. As for the professional education, it emphasizes on professional training and application. Except different kinds of military colleges, China also makes good use of the resources from higher education system. Recently, military cooperates with many universities in order to provide better training for their future military talents.

    In order to confront the challenge of the Revolution in Military Affair, most of the countries accelerate the task of military training in order to retain high quality military talents. From military talents education point of view, using higher education as resources to train the future military personnel is a trend all over the world. The characteristic for this approach is to use the resources from higher education in order to level up the quality of military education and make the allocation of education resource more reasonable for better economic and social benefits.

    Although the project of students for national defense has assisted the modern military construction and improved the talent knowledge structure, it caused some new problems. Those problems showed that there are still some limitation as implementing the project, such as system design, environment in the military, and student personal factors. If those problems are not able to solve, they may influence the performance of this project and caused negative effects.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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