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    Title: 中共領導權力接班之探研(1978-2004)
    Other Titles: transfer of political power in the top leadership in China(1978-2004)
    Authors: 張志峰;Chang, Chih-feng
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    潘錫堂;Pan, His-tang;龔春生;Gong, Chun-sheng
    Keywords: 權力接班;政治轉移;派系;菁英政治;Power transfer;Political transfer;Faction;Elite politics
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:33:26 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在一般民主國家裡政治權力的傳承通常是透過選舉的方式進行;但在中國大陸,政治權力傳承的層級越高,在領導人選的拔擢上透明度就越低。大體而言,中共的權力結構可以分為中國共產黨、政府和軍隊三大系統,此三者是中國大陸權力結構的三大核心。
    一九七七年五月中共「十屆三中全會」中,在得到軍方的支持之下,鄧小平恢復黨、政、軍中的各項職位,以資深高級幹部的身份逐漸主導之後的政治發展。一九八九年的「六四事件」迫使趙紫陽背負支持動亂的罪名而下臺,鄧小平原先所部署的接班領導班子變得殘破不堪,改革派的勢力受到重挫,不得不重新調整。江澤民由上海的黨委書記一躍成為中央總書記,成為「中共第三代集體領導的核心」。這個決定不但使中共領導階層人員瞠目結舌、各國研究大陸人事異動的專家學者、甚且連江本人也都不可置信!
    從上述的接班簡史中,我們可以發現在中國的政治之中,「權位的繼承」並不代表「權力的擁有」;任職時間的長短也不代表是否擁有權威與地位,因為權威不是冊封或者指定就可獲得的,而是在長期的政治、軍事鬥爭中或者經濟決策中形成的。「接班」所牽涉的是權位、權力、權利,三權由現在的擁有者交到其繼任者的身上。根據中國政治的傳統,上述三權在接班的過程之中,未必是一次性的完全轉移,很有可能是權位、權利先行轉移,而最重要的、最關鍵的權力則是逐次釋出。
    由於中共的權力延續及更迭向來是黑箱作業,除了其神秘性激發世人好奇心之外,經過二十年的改革開放,中國大陸的政治、經濟、軍事等得到全面躍升,在國際舞台上舉足輕重,因此中國大陸極權體制的走向事關世界安定與穩定。中共需要有常規化的接班制度,尤其,中共黨內已不再有革命型的權威領袖人物,若沒有常規化的權力接班制度,則可能造成彼此不服的情況,進而影響政局穩定。
    In a democracy, transfer of political power is normally carried out through fair elections. In China, however, there is little transparency in the transfer of power, especially in the top leadership. China’s political power comes from three organizations, ie, the communist party, the government, and the military.
    In May 1977, Deng Xiaoping regained the control of the above three organizations with the assistance of the military, and started to dominate the political development in China ever since. Later on Deng was forced to change his appointed successor after Zhao Zhi-yang’s purge in the wake of June 4 pro-democracy movement. Many Chinese leading cadres and international observers were surprised when Jiang Zemin was promoted from Shanghai party secretary to Secretary General of the communist party.
    We can find that “transfer of power” doesn’t necessarily mean “possession of power” in the Chinese history. Holding a position doesn’t guarantee authority and status. This is because authority is granted through long-term political or military struggle or due to economic considerations, rather than by appointment. Transfer of political power involves authority, power, and privilege, which are passed down from the predecessor to the successor. In the Chinese history, the successor may not take over the above three all at one time. It is likely that authority and privilege come first, while the most critical power is transferred little by little.
    Little about the transfer of power process is make public to the outside world, which provokes curiosity of many. After twenty years of reform, China has become a political, military, and economic power. Its future political development can have a profound impact on the world’s peace and stability. An institutionalized power transfer system is essential to China’s domestic political stability as strongman is a thing of the past in China’s political arena.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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