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    Title: 從中共人大常委會「雙普選」釋法看香港的民主化
    Other Titles: Exploring the democratization of Hong Kong from "double general election" law explanation in people's national congress standing committee of China
    從中共人大常委會雙普選釋法看香港的民主化
    Authors: 余國華;Yu, Kuo-hua
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    潘錫堂;Pan, His-tang
    Keywords: 基本法;一國兩制;雙普選;法律解釋;民主化;政黨;Basic Law;One country;two systems;Double General Election;Legal interpretation;Democratisation;Political Party
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:32:33 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 論文提要內容:
    一九八二年英國首相佘契爾夫人訪問中國大陸,就香港問題與中共進行談判,在中共表明九七年將收回香港主權的訊息確切傳達給英方後,英國開始積極推動香港的「非殖民地化」政策,同時也加快香港民主化的腳步。中共則以「一個國家,兩種制度」作為安排香港回歸中國大陸後的政治經濟地位,同時制定「基本法」作為具體落實的法律依據。
    二00四年四月,中共全國人大常委會對於香港特別行政區二00七年行政長官和二00八年立法會產生辦法是否需要修改,「主動」作出法律解釋,釋法結果否決了香港民主人士爭取行政長官和立法會議員全面實施雙普選的訴求。英國在香港地區展開的民主化政策,目的是希望在香港建立起如西方三權分立的民主代議政治制度;中共制定「基本法」時,曾對香港作出「港人治港、高度自治」的承諾,「基本法」也規定香港特區的行政長官和立法會最終要以普選的方式產生。然而,中共全國人大常委會釋法結果,不僅違背香港民意,更使得香港民眾對中共是否能落實「一國兩制」產生疑慮。
    「一國兩制」在世界各國的政治體制中是獨一無二的,在單一制國家裡實施二種不同的制度亦絕無僅有。本文研究將從中共與香港法律解釋制度的差異、中共與香港政治體制的不同、中共政治穩定與經濟發展之考量等面向,探討中共釋法的過程及可能原因,並進一步分析中共的釋法作為是否違背「依法治國」理念,對香港民主化發展和一國兩制規範下「港人治港、高度自治」的承諾可能產生的影響。
    Abstract:
    In 1982, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher visited China and had negotiations with China with regard to the issues of Hong Kong. After China stated clearly that, it would reclaim the sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997 and passed the message to Britain, the latter started to aggressively promote the “non-colonization” policy in Hong Kong. Besides, it also accelerated the process of democratization in Hong Kong. China treated “one country, two systems” as the means to arrange the political and economic positions of Hong Kong after returning to China and established “Basic Law” as the legal base of concrete implementation.
    In April 2004, National People''s Congress Standing Committee of China “actively” proposed legal explanation with regard to the modification of administrative executives in 2007 and regulation of the establishment of legislative assembly in 2008 in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The result of law explanation vetoed Hong Kong democratic advocates appeal of overall implementation of Double General Election for administrative executives and the members of legislative assembly. The purpose of British development of democratization policy in Hong Kong region was to construct the democratic representative system as three official branches in the West. When establishing “Basic Law”, China has promised Hong Kong “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy” and “Basic Law” also regulated that the administrative executives and legislative assembly in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will finally be elected by general election. However, the result of law explanation in National People''s Congress Standing Committee of China not only violated the public opinion of Hong Kong, but also made Hong Kong people feel suspicious of China’s fulfillment of “one country, two systems”.
    “One country, two systems” is exclusive in the political systems of the countries around the world. It is also the only means to executive two different systems in the country with single system. This research explored the process of Chinese law explanation and the possible reasons from the difference of Chinese and Hong Kong law explanation systems, political systems of China and Hong Kong and the considerations of Chinese political stability and economic development. It further analyzed if Chinese law explanation violated the idea of “governing the country by law” and the possible influences on democratization development in Hong Kong and the promise of “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy” under the regulation of “one country, two systems”.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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