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    題名: 海峽兩岸老人長期照顧政策之比較研究
    其他題名: The comparison of long-term care policy for the elderly between Taiwan and mainland China
    作者: 莊金珠;Chuang, Chin-chu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    潘錫堂;Pan, His-tang;龔春生;Gong, Chun-sheng
    關鍵詞: 海峽兩岸;人口老化;長期照顧;比較研究;both sides of Taiwan strait;population aging;Long-term care;comparison research
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:32:30 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 人口老化是目前世界各國共同面臨的變遷經驗,台灣地區與大陸地區也不例外,西方國家從上個世紀初、中葉以來就經歷了如何面對人口老化的課題,這些國家約有近百年的時間可以作準備,但是台灣與大陸卻只有24年、25年的時間,就會由高齡化社會正式進入高齡社會。隨著老年人口的快速成長,因身心功能受損需要長期照顧的失能者會越來越多,本研究特利用文獻分析,比較台灣地區與大陸地區自1949年起至2008年止,有關老人長期照顧政策的制定背景、變革過程及未來發展趨勢的共同性及差異性,做為政府部門制定政策的參考,以增進失能老人及其家庭的福祉。
    本研究發現由於文化上的敬老、孝道等主流價值相似,海峽兩岸老人長期照顧仍以家庭為主;近年受歐美先進國家長期照顧發展經驗的影響,更積極朝居家式、社區式服務為主,機構為輔的政策方針做努力。二地主要相似性包含:(1)失能老人的長期照顧服務,均以家庭照顧為主;(2)均積極發展居家式、社區式多元長期照顧資源;(3)長期照顧服務內容類似。
    至於二地相異之處,主要是因為大陸是個「未富先老」的社會,且長期照顧服務僅屬於初步發展的階段,所以存在以下差異:(1)長期照顧服務所涵蓋的對象不同,台灣地區已將補助對象由中低收入者,擴展到一般戶失能老人;(2)居家失能老人的主要照顧人力不同,大陸地區主要為失能老人的配偶或子女,台灣則仰賴外籍看護工;(3)長期照顧所需經費來源不同,台灣地區主要由中央及地方政府編列公務預算支應;大陸地區則為發行福利彩票籌集的福利金;(5)長期照顧評估機制不同,台灣地區已全面於各縣市政府建立專業失能評估及照顧管理制度,大陸地區則於少數都市初步試行。
    但不容否認,大陸地區政府當局也高度重視老年人口的照顧議題,1999年國務院即同意成立全國老齡工作委員會,由副總理擔任主任,並於中央及地方成立老齡研究機構,逐步形成從中央到地方工作與研究網絡,值得吾人借鏡。
    The aging of population is a transitional experience which many countries are facing commonly, including Taiwan and China. The Western countries have experienced the aging of population since the last beginning of century which leads them near hundred years learn how to cope with it. However, Taiwan and China will officially enter the aged society by the aging society in only 24 or 25 years. Along with the old population grows fast, the people who suffer the disability of body or mind and need the long-term care will be getting more and more. This research used the literature analysis by comparing the differences and similarity of the senior citizens long-term care policy-making background, evolution process and future trend of development between Taiwan and Mainland China in order to make a reference for the Government department to help the elders who lose their function and improve welfare of their families.
    This research found that the long-term care policy for the senior citizens is still family-based primarily in both sides across the Taiwan Strait because of the mainstream values of cultural reverence for elders and filial piety are similar. Recent years, because of the influences of the Europe and America, the long-term care in both Taiwan and China become to be a more positive toward that home type, the community-based service take primary role and the institutional service does for the auxiliary. The similarities in both areas include: (1) long-term care service of elder people who lose their function is by family care primarily; (2) positively develops the home-based, the community-based, and multi-dimensional long-term care resources; (3) contents of the long-term care service are similar.
    The main differences between Taiwan and China is that the mainland is a society which population get older before become rich, and its long-term care service is only in the preliminary development stage, as describe following. (1) Subjects who are concerned by long-term care service are different. Taiwan has subsidized the subject by the low income earners, expanded to the general elder persons who lose their function. (2) Main attendance manpower is different. In China, people who care the elders are usually their spouse or children. However, in Taiwan, elders are usually took care by foreign nursing labors. (3) The funds for the long-term care are different. Taiwan mainly arranges in order official business budget by the central and the local authority to deal with. In China, the funds are mainly collected by welfare-interest lotteries. (5) The appraisal mechanism of the long-term attendance is different. Taiwan has established comprehensively in various counties municipal governments about the professional appraise and considering control system. However, the mainland area executes the related policies in the minority metropolises.
    However, it does not allow to deny that the public authority of China also take seriously about the issue of the attendance for aged population. In 1999, the State Council agreed to establish the national old age working committee which direct by the vice-premier. The central and the local governments also establish the old age development facility. These policies formed the two-way research network gradually between the central and local authorities which was worth us to learn.
    顯示於類別:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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