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    Title: 論兩委一肩挑對中國大陸農村民主發展之影響
    Other Titles: The development of village's democracy in changing on policy of elections
    Authors: 韓化宇;Han, Hwa-yu
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    吳漢;Wu, Han
    Keywords: 村民委員會;村黨支部;村民自治;農村選舉;village committee;branch of Communist party;village autonomy;the election of village
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:32:27 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 1982年中共通過新憲,其中111條規定各地農村建立以群眾自治為主的「村民委員會」,正式確立了村民委員會的性質及其法律地位,開啟了其後村民自治的發展。1987年第六屆全國人大常委會第二十三次會議審議通過《村民委員會組織法(試行)》。將村委會換屆選舉做了明確的規定。1998年九屆全國人大常委會第五次審議通過修訂後的《村民委員會組織法》,對村委會的選舉、監督、議事等方面作了更詳細的規定與規範,也對村委會的性質、職能做了更詳盡的規定。《村民委員會組織法》公佈後,中國各地的村委會選舉慢慢的步上軌道。

    村民委員會獨立於中共政權體制外,是為以村民自治為基礎的獨立機關。在法律上不聽命於任何上級政府及組織之命令。上級政府(如鄉鎮政府)需肩負起領導及協助之功能,而非指揮命令之行為。依據村委會組織法相關條款規定,村委會是一個類似社會團體的自治機構,是以村民自我管理、自我教育、自我服務的基層群眾性自治組織,實行民主選舉、民主決策、民主管理、民主監督。在農村除了村民委員會外,另一機構便是代表中共黨政系統的「村黨支部」。村黨支部隸屬於上級黨部,負責完成上級黨部交代之工作及監督村委會工作之情形。而民選之村委會與官派之村黨支部兩者之間彼此的互動與關係便稱為「兩委關係」。兩委關係是否和諧牽連到村務是否能正常的開展,也關係到農村內權力的制衡。

    而在2002年中共中央發佈了《中共中央辦公廳、國務院辦公廳關於進一步做好村民委員會換屆選舉工作的通知》,簡稱14號「通知」。主要內容是要求各地農村將民選之村民委員會和官派的村黨支部在合法的範圍內做有機的結合,簡稱「兩委一肩挑」。中共中央對於一肩挑的目的及宗旨是為了解決兩委問題所所衍伸出的「兩委矛盾」,但實際上是否是如此?各地在實行一肩挑的過程中是否有不法情形或是不合理行為?一肩挑是否能促進地方農村民主之發展,或是倒退?皆是本論文所要探討之目的。
    In 1982 China enacted the new constitution in which the 111th regulation defined and established the “village committee” in the countryside to ensure China’s village autonomy. In 1987, the 23rd committee of the 6th the standing committee of National People''s Congres passed the trial organizational regulation of village delegate which clearly defined the elective regulation. In 1998, the 5th committee of the standing committee of National People''s Congres revised the organizational regulation of village delegate which made more specific regulations for election, supervision, council rules, etc. Since then, the election of village delegate was gradually normalized around the nation.
    The village committee was an autonomous independent mechanism which was isolated from the PRC governing system. In fact, the village committee was not under the command of any high level governing organization; in stead, the later had to be responsible for directing or supporting the functional operation of the former. According to relevant regulations of the organizational regulation of village delegate, the village committee was more like a autonomous social group which practiced democratic election, democratic decision, democratic governance, and democratic supervision. In addition to the village committee, another mechanism represented PRC government was called branch of Communist party. it was subordinate to the high level PRC party and responsible for enforcing the assigned work or supervising the condition of the village committee. Thus, the relationship and interactions between these two mechanisms might influence the operation of village affairs and the power balance within the village.
    In 2002, PRC government proclaimed 14th announcement which demanded that the central office was in charge of completing the election of the village committee. The major job contents of the central office were to legally combined the power of the village committee and branch of Communist party. The purpose of PRC government for this was to resolve the contradiction which was extended from the two mechanisms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the 14th announcement was able to improve or retreat the democratic development in the village.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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