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    題名: 中國磁吸效應對臺灣政治經濟的影響
    其他題名: The magnetic effect of China on Taiwan's political economy
    作者: 莊孟學;Chuang, Meng-hsueh
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    顏建發;Yan, Jiann-fa
    關鍵詞: 磁吸效應;Magnetic Effect
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:31:20 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本文旨在探討,中國自鄧小平南巡,確立改革開放路線之後,中國以其十三億人口的消費市場優勢、廣大的土地所形成低廉的土地成本、豐饒的自然資源作為其開發的條件,令其在亞太地區興起,成為全球所矚目的新興經濟大國。改革開放正如一股強大的電流,在中國內地流竄,而產生一股強大的吸引力,如同一塊磁鐵吸引資本家產生磁化,不斷地將資金、技術、人才投入中國的各項經濟活動之中。
    台灣位處於亞洲東緣的中心,四百年來即為貿易發達的地區,尤其在戰後,經濟的高度發展與政治的民主化,更成為舉世所矚目的奇蹟,由六○年代、七○年直到九○年代,台灣全方位的發展傲視全球,躋身亞洲四小龍之林,一九八七年因戒嚴法的取消,台灣投資環境開始惡化,隨勞工運動、民主運動、環保運動……各式各樣的社會運動與改革反改革力量的拉扯,創造了民主奇蹟,但也造成產業的空洞化整體競爭力的衰退,同年開放對中國探親、間接貿易以及投資,台灣與中國間的經貿關係日益緊密,大量的台灣人帶著美金、台幣進入中國消費,或協助親友,大批的旅遊人口進入中國促進了中國旅遊觀光業的發達,更有台商開始進入中國投資經營,協助開拓外銷市場,種下中國與台灣競爭的種子。
    臺灣經濟部國貿局二○○六年七月發佈兩岸貿易統計顯示,臺灣二○○六年對中國的貿易幾乎每月都有三十億美元的順差,二○○六年前五個月核准對中國的投資金額是二八點七億美元,比去年同期成長了百分之四十六點六,由於在中國的台商生產所需的原料多數仍然從臺灣採購,因此,前五個月臺灣對中國出口的金額達到了二四五億美元,比去年同期成長了百分之十三點二。二○○五年全年臺灣對中國的貿易出超首度突破了三百億美元,達到了三一八億美元,中國仍然是臺灣最大的創匯地區。二○○五年臺灣從中國進口的金額也將近兩百億美元,占臺灣整體進口比重的百分之十一,只比日本、美國略低,成為臺灣第三大進口來源。
    面對中國十三億的人口,台灣的商人是否有能力抗拒此一廣大市場吸引力,並能體認台灣面臨的處境。中國主要作法是對我政府與臺灣人民進行「二分法」分化策略。因此,中國儘管反對「兩個中國」、「台獨」,但嚴格把執政當局與臺灣民眾區別開來,表明其態度為「對於兩岸人民的往來與交流,中國將一如既往的支持,對於台商在大陸的合法權益,仍堅決給予保護」將民生經濟與國家定位劃開,模糊台商的意識形態。
    當在台灣執政半個世紀之久的中國國民黨失去政權之後,朝野的角色一夕間對換,執政黨與在野黨的不適應症狀應聲而起,執政的民進黨以八歲的黨齡之姿頃獲政權,而國民黨的百年老店則是大權旁落,政黨輪替三年以來,各種政治亂象迭起,執政黨政府的力量正在被削弱之中,多黨政治分散了政府的意志,而台灣又面臨全球性的經濟不景氣,失業率高漲,投資意願低落,此時,面對中國這個漸漸成長的經濟實體,台灣人似乎又無法婉拒此一龐大市場的誘惑,但台灣島內的政治勢力、意識形態又是如此的對立,台灣正如騎在虎背上的獵人,上下不得……。
    公元二○○○年台灣與中國同時加入世界貿易組織(WTO)之後,當台灣面對全球化的議題時,更無可避免的必須面臨中國的競爭壓力與經貿的衝突,而這一個壓力不僅是經濟的競爭,而包含台灣與中國間的政治、軍事、文化、國際現勢等等複雜而且充滿爾虞我詐的兩岸攻防。就經貿的發展來觀察,台灣與中國的經貿關係,也造成台灣對中國過度的傾斜與依賴,中國靠台灣的投資與技術,以期低廉的土地與人力成本所生產的商品,進一步的傾銷全球,當然台灣更無法倖免,因而造成根留台灣的傳統產業,在其低價的傾銷之下,而引發生存的危機,這已經是不爭的事實,不過當大量的中國商品傾銷台灣的同時,台灣事實上也開始學習以WTO的架構模式,採取合法的貿易保護措施,即所謂的反傾銷稅。來處理貿易傾銷的問題,例如以課徵反傾銷稅方式來保護國內傳統產業。
    由於中國的崛起,對台灣國內的意識形態產生極端的變化,國民黨執政時期的「三合一敵人」(對岸的共匪,島內潛伏的中共同路人,海外的中共統戰團體)已經隨政治的環境變化不再被提起,而執政黨必要貫徹保衛國家安全防範國人的「叛國罪、通敵罪」也呈現鬆弛,這是台灣邁向民主之後的轉變,因此,有不少媒體、政治人物、社團領袖、工商企業團體….被冠以中國代言人,而形色不改。即便如此,在台灣的民主化思潮,與國際化程度越來越高的情勢之下,台灣人的自我認同卻節節高升,台灣一般民眾的意識,和檯面上政治人物的政治與認同與媒體所展現出來趨向是有落差的,這一些落差的關鍵因素為何,直得進一步注意並加以研究。台灣人民被中國磁吸效應所影響的部分由此可見最主要是經濟上因素的影響,而在政治上中國對台灣民眾的影響,則有日益趨弱的現象。
    台灣這個國家,正面臨生存價值的考驗。保護所有人民的自由人權,是政府的責任,更是政府存在的主要價值,儘管許多企業也許面臨生存的問題,必須獲得改善,然此,是政府所必須付出智慧來加以解決的,斷不是以犧牲全體人民的人權,去造就部份企業的成就,而其後果由人民承擔,執政者必須有能力未雨綢繆,阻止任何危及國家安全的情勢發生,更必須執行公權力維護國家安全,更何況是對一個敵對國家無限制的輸出與開放,本文所要倡導的訊息是,民主國家政府既然擁有大多數人的選票,就必須為保護全體人民的生存權利付出最高代價,這是人民賦予政府至高無上的權力,更是政府存在最高道德與價值。
    Since Deng Xiaoping’s visit to southern China, which in return established the route of opening up and economic reform. The advantages of the size of its population for consumption, its vast territory for low land cost, and its abundant resources, Chinas
    has become the new rising and developing economic nation both in Asia and the world. Reform and opening up, like a surging electric power, are spraying in China and
    attracting businesses internationally. This force like a strong magnetic power draws capitalists to pour unbounded funds, technology, and labor into the Chinese market of various economic activities.

    Taiwan lies off the southeastern coast of mainland Asia. It has been a developed trade
    area since four hundred years ago. Especially after World War II, the rapid growing
    of its economy and democratizing of its politics were well known and recognized by the international community as a miracle. In the sixties, seventies, and until the nineties, Taiwan’s all-around development had won itself the name of the Asia Four Dragons. In 1987, as the martial law lifted and the labor, democratic, environmental, etc. movements erupted, Taiwan’s investing environment deteriorated. The budding democratic
    development has also brought with it a closer trade relation between Taiwan and China. Taiwan’s companies started doing businesses in China and invested heftily and gradually. And, it has seeded fierce competitions between the two nations later on.

    In July 2006, Taiwan’s Bureau of Trade announced the statistics of trades of Taiwan and China. Over the year of 2006, Taiwan had a trade surplus with China in the amount of $3 billion dollars every month. In the first five months of 2006, the total investment in China was $2.87 billion dollars, an increase of 46.6% compared to a year before. And the reason behind it was the supply of raw material still has to be exported from Taiwan. In 2005, Taiwan’s trade surplus with Chinas has exceeded $30 billion dollars for the first time. However, at the same time, Taiwan imported almost $20 billion dollars of goods from
    China, which represent 10% of total imports and Taiwan’s third biggest importing source.
    The temptation of the potential market of the 1.3 billion populations in China, can Taiwan’s business people be expected to protect national security over their own benefits? The Chinese government has dealt with the Taiwan-China relations using a two-method approach. On the one hand, it welcomes Taiwan’s businesses to China. But, on the other hand, it opposes to either of Taiwan’s independence movement or two-China policy. The friendly appearance of the business environment has some Taiwanese business people to forgo their national identity.

    he replacement of the KMT by the DPP in 2000 has brought about many setbacks in
    many aspects of Taiwan’s society, including political, economical, and social. As an opposing party, the KMT has acted uncooperatively with the new ruling party. Supports
    for each party have grown increasingly disapproving of one another. The whole society has divided into two extremes, pan-green or pan-blue. This vicious cycle of a rival society is showing no sign of vanishing after almost eight years of DDP taking office.

    In 2000, Taiwan and China have become a member of the WTO, since then, Taiwan not only has to faced challenges and competitions internationally, but also from the uprising China. The low cost of production in China and increasing import of goods from China have significantly affected the home market in Taiwan. Nevertheless, in the recent few
    cases of China dumping, as a WTO member, Taiwan was able to look after its own
    interest by the anti-dumping action.

    The emergence of China’s economy has lowered people’s alertness of adversary from the Communist China. After Taiwan’s democratic development, freedom of speech has been abused by some mainstream medias, which would speak in China’s favor and acted as its broadcasters. Economically, a great portion of Taiwanese has an illusion of the potential profit=making market of the 1.3 billion Chinese populations. This strong attraction has
    them surrendered their national identify to accept whatever the Chinese government imposed on them.

    Taiwan is now facing many tough challenges. It’s the government’s job and the core value of its existence to both to protect the freedom of its people and their prosperity. The
    growing power of China is diminishing Taiwan’s bargaining power in the international community. In a democratic country, the ruling party, which has won the support of the majority, should fulfill its obligation to bring about the security and safety of its nation and people.
    顯示於類別:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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