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    Title: 影響中國大陸地區所得差距之研究 : 以1994-2003年之Panel Data實證分析
    Other Titles: Factors influence income differences between areas in China : analyzed by 1994-2003 Panel Data
    Authors: 劉慧茹;Liu, Hui-ju
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    陳建甫;Chen, Chien-fu
    Keywords: 地區所得分配;西部大開發;Panel Data追縱資料;Distribution of income in an area.;The Great Leap West;Panel Data.
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:29:21 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中國在改革開放前,收入分配政策是以“平均主義”為導向。但至改革後,為了追求經濟快速發展,改變成以“效率優先,兼具公平”的模式,使得中國在經濟上獲得了高速成長,但隨之而來的卻是出現比改革前程度上更大的收入差距。尤其是自鄧小平南巡後,中國在經濟上獲得了高速成長與政府積極採取區域發展策略的同時,所得不均的問題依然存在,為此,中國在政策上做了調整而推動西部大開發戰略,試圖縮小差距。但是政策的實施是否對全國皆有所改善,而或是只限侷部地區呢?因而引發本論文探討中國在城鎮與農村中的區域所得的變化。

    因此,本論文將以農村部門與城鎮部門為撰寫主軸,時間上是自鄧小平南巡後,1994年至2003年近10年的所得水準和中國30個省市自治區,並結合橫斷面與時間序列之Panel Data追縱資料中隨機效果模型為實證研究方法,藉由資本累積、產業結構、所有制與人力資本等產業發展策略,以及西部大開發等區域發展策略來檢視,中國農村、城鎮部門區域間的地區所得差距,並討究其造成地區居民所得差距擴大之因素,同時探討西部大開發的區域發展策略實施後,是否能抑制農村與城鎮部門地區所得差距日益惡化。

    研究發現:一、所得水準:農村部門所得水準主要受到儲蓄率、鄉鎮企業從業人員比重與教育程度比重所影響;城鎮部門則是受到第二級產業與非國國有企業從業人員比重所致。二、三大地區間的差距因素:農村部門主要由教育程度與鄉鎮企業從業人員比重所導致,但城鎮部門地區差距最主要是受到非國有企業從業人員比重不均所引起的。三、實施西部大開發後對所得水準的影響,均造成三大地帶農村與城鎮部門所得皆提高,但是城鎮所得增加速度更是高於農村部門。且西部大開發實施後,發現農村部門地區間皆呈現顯著的差異,但城鎮部門地區差距卻只表現在東部與中部地帶的差距。從三大地區省際間差距的趨勢來看,農村東、中、西部均有擴大的趨勢,城鎮部門卻僅有東、西部省際間差距有擴大,中部地區反而有集中的之勢。整體而言,西部大開發政策截至2003年止,其實施的成效對城鎮部門的改善是較有利的,但對農村部門仍然存在地區差距明顯,顯示出中國政府對於此政策的實施,可能僅是造福於城鎮居民,但對農村地區的幫助與地區差距的改善則有侷限性。
    Before China’s Open-Market Liberalization,the distribution of people’s income was basically led by the policy of equalization.However, after the practice of Open-Market Liberalization,Chinese government tended to pursue fast growth of economy, so the policy of equalization was changed into “effect first, and coexist with equalization.” Even though the modification did accomplish the rapid growth of the economy, accompanied with the growth is another problem of the enlarged gap between the rich and the poor in China. Especially after Deng Hsiao-Pin’s southern inspection tours, China government has made more aggressive sectional development policy and hence pushed the growth of economy even faster, and the unequal of people’s income remains the same. In order to shrink the gap, China government started to engage in “The Great Development of Western China,” but whether this project can solve the nation-wide unequal-income problem, or just benefit some of the local area remains unknown. Accordingly, this study will focus on the differences between the changes of people’s income in urban and rural area in China.
    The core of this study is the income level of rural and urban areas, and the period of time analyzed is 10 years after Deng’s southern inspection tour, which is 1994~2003, and the geographic area of the study includes 30 provinces, cities, and autonomous regions in China. With the methods of tangent plane, time sequence, and model of random effect Panel Data, and the inspection to these policies: capital accumulation; industrial construction; possession; human resources; and western development, the study try to exam the income differences between people in rural and urban area, hence discover the factor that caused the enlargement of the gap between the rich and the poor. The study will also exam the effect of “The Great Development of Western China” policy to stop the enlargement of the gap between the rich and the poor.
    The discovery from the study can be demonstrated in three aspects. First is the income level. In rural area, the income level is mainly influenced by the saving rate, the percentage of people who employed by enterprises, and the percentage of people with higher education. On the other hand, the income level in urban area is influenced by the percentage of people who employed by second-tier industry and non-government-owned enterprises.Second is the factor that caused differences between three areas. In rural area, the differences are mainly caused by education level and the percentage of people employed by enterprises. Nevertheless, the differences in urban area are mainly caused by the unequal employed rate in non-government-owned enterprises. Third is the influence to income level by “The Great Development of Western China.” Although the policy raised the income level in both rural and urban areas in three great areas, the growth in urban area were still faster than it in rural area. On the other hand, “The Great Development of Western China” brought equally apparent changes to the rural area everywhere, but its influence to the urban area only shown in western and central China. From the developing trend of income gap, it is enlarging in rural areas of Eastern, Central, and Western China. However, in urban area, the enlargement only happened in Eastern and Western China, and in urban area of Central China, the income gap is actually shrinking. Accordingly, till year 2003, the policy of “The Great Development of Western China” affects more on shrinking the income gap of the urban area in general, but affects much less to the rural area. The result shows that this policy’s effect is very limited to shrink the income gap of the rural area compares to its effect to the urban area.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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