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    Title: 中國大陸旅行社集團化發展之研究
    Other Titles: On conglomeration of travel services in the Chinese mainland
    Authors: 張茂隆;Chang, Mao-lung
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    張五岳;Chang, Wu-ueh
    Keywords: 集團化;中國旅行社;中國國際旅行社;中國青年旅行社;Conglomeration;China Travel Service;China International Travel Service;China Youth Travel Service
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:29:07 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文主要在探討中國大陸旅行社集團化後,對其國家整體政治、經濟等層面的影響與運作。中國大陸從1978年以前只有兩家以政治接待為主的旅行社,至1988年打破行業壟斷的局面增至1573家,而後1996年中國大陸頒佈《旅行社管理條例》,加上進入WTO的衝擊,導致中國的旅行社開始呈現集團化發展趨勢,也開始對中國的政治、經濟等層面產生各種影響。

    本文從中國大陸旅行社集團化發展中的過程、背景與因素轉折開始探討,並以大陸三家主要集團化旅行社「中旅」、「國旅」、「青旅」作個案探討與比較,從中總結大陸旅行社集團化發展過程中的各項經驗與借鏡!

    文中另專章探討大陸旅行社集團化發展過程中政府的角色扮演與政策制定,藉以了解中國大陸旅行社集團化的實踐模式與政府作為情況,並且也探討外資在其中的影響因素。最後在文章總結部分,特別針對中國大陸旅行社集團化發展的經營與挑戰深入探討,期從中總結經驗,探究中國大陸旅行社集團化的過程中,有哪些利弊經驗總結,可作為後續發展的參考依據,也作為台灣旅行社在面臨大陸旅行業強力競爭下的對策因應!

    總體來說,本文在經過文獻分析以及個案比較後,獲致了解中國大陸旅行社在集團化發展之後,除具有強大的上、中、下游產業整合與競爭優勢外,並在某些旅遊項目造成壟斷、大者恆大情形,此為未來大陸旅行業者進入台灣後,台灣業者和政府需思考面對的。另大陸旅行社集團化後,亦產生下列幾項缺失,可作為看待大陸旅行社集團化的整體省思:(1)扶植少數旅行社、圖利特定旅遊財團,造成社會利益失衡。(2)外行領導內行、官方強行分割旅遊市場業務。(3)過於依賴政府,中國國營旅行社市場化速度緩慢、失去國際競爭力。(4)相對外資,中國大陸旅行社集團化只發展規模、卻沒有發展品牌。(5)中共管制下的的旅行社業無法創新。(6)中國大陸旅行社業惡性競爭導致市場與社會信用危機。(7)中國大陸旅行社業法制未健全,導致社會缺乏信用認同。
    This article focuses on the operation of travel service conglomerates in the Chinese Mainland as well as their effects on the Chinese politics and economy. Starting with two travel agencies specializing in official reception prior to 1978, the Mainland travel service sector ended up monopoly in 1988 and the number of travel agencies reached 1573 in the same year. With the promulgation of the Administrative Regulations on Travel Agencies in 1996 and the impact of WTO, Chinese travel services began to undergo the trend of conglomeration, which had all kinds of effects on Chinese politics, economy and other aspects.

    Researching into the background, process and factors in the conglomeration of Mainland travel services and studying and making comparison between the top three travel service conglomerates: CTS, CITS and CYTS, the author tries to summarize the experience and lessons from the conglomeration of Mainland travel services.

    Furthermore, this article also focuses attention to the role of government and the formulation of policies in the course of conglomeration so as to understand the conglomeration model of Mainland travel services, the function of government and the implications of foreign capital. In the summary of this article, the author makes a thorough research into the operation and challenges of Mainland travel service conglomerates to sum up experience and draw necessary lessons as a reference for their future development and Taiwan travel services confronted with fierce competition from their counterparts in the Mainland.

    After literature review and case comparison, the author finds out that Mainland travel service conglomerates not only have advantage in industry integration and competition, but have also monopolized some tour projects, which should be taken into consideration by Taiwan operators and government after Mainland conglomerates enter the Taiwan market. In addition, there are also some defects in Mainland travel service conglomerates: (1) Disparity of social benefits due to support to several particular travel services; (2) Lack of professional leadership and compulsory division of travel market; (3) Over-dependence on government and slow market-oriented reform of state-owned travel services, which causes loss of international competitive advantage; (4) Compared with foreign-funded services, lack of brand development consistent with scale development; (5) Failure of innovation under the control of the CPC; (6) Market and credit crisis caused by unhealthy competition; and (7) Lack of the recognition of credit due to the under-developed legal system in the Mainland travel service sector.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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