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    Title: 從「新安全觀」探討中共對東協外交戰略
    Other Titles: Probe into China's diplomatic strategy to deal with ASEAN from the viewpoint of "new security concept"
    Authors: 高四維;Kao, Shy-wei
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    趙春山;Chao, Chun-shan
    Keywords: 中共外交;Chinese Foreign Policy;New Security Concept;ASEAN;Security strategy;China-ASEAN Relations;新安全觀;東協;安全戰略;中共東協關係
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:27:31 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中共自1978年改革開放以來,積極執行「開放改革」之國家發展戰略目標,即以富致強,在經濟快速成長的過程中,更逐步將經濟實力轉化為國家影響力;隨著冷戰結束,世界局勢,由軍事對抗轉為經濟發展為主的趨勢,形成所謂「新安全觀」,遵循「由近致遠,從易致難」的執行原則,將中國傳統「和氣生財」的商業法則化入國家發展戰略,更在周邊國家推行「睦鄰外交」,營造有利商貿生財的和平發展環境,尤其在東南亞地區,以大國經濟體快速成長之磁吸效應吸引東協各中小國群附謀利,藉「中共─東協自由貿易區」經濟板塊的主導優勢,縱横捭闔,企圖瓦解美日圍堵戰略,強化整體綜合安全能量。中共基於維持東協國家的良好雙邊關係,依循「新安全觀」,運用經濟及政治交流,加強與東協各國之關係發展;另藉區域合作拓展展開周邊外交布局,推進東協10+1自由貿易區組織建設,加強安全合作及推進經貿能源發展方式,藉深化經濟依賴,引導各領域全面發展。
    綜觀以知,中共對東協外交工作已獲得若干成就。在政治利益上,中共透過各種夥伴關係的建立、雙邊或多邊機制的參與,拉緊與東南亞的關係, 2003年更成為第一個與東協簽署「面向和平與繁榮的戰略伙伴關係」的國家。
    在經濟利益上, 2010年「中國-東協自由貿易區」的整合,將成為全世界涵蓋人口達17億之最大自由貿易區,與東協各國發展「經濟共同體」臍帶關係,漸次形成中共主導的「亞洲門羅主義」,排擠美日在此區的影響力。
    在安全利益上,中共倡議「新安全觀」並運用睦鄰外交,與周邊國家解決大部分邊境領土爭議,對於南海主權問題,則以「擱置爭議、共同開發」原則釋出善意,並透過軍事互信機制的建立,推行軍事交流,參與及推動多邊安全機制,營造「和平崛起」且負責任的大國形象。
    在戰略目標上,延續冷戰時期海陸爭霸格局,不斷採購前蘇聯優異軍事科技產品,並在航天、衛星領域取得矚目成果,積極擘畫「藍水海軍」版圖,欲將主權及軍力延伸至南海與東南亞,增強外交談判籌碼。更由於中共崛起所伴隨的能源需求成長,故而希冀在能源安全上,發揮保護海上通道的功能。
    中共基於「新安全觀」提出「睦鄰外交」,其特定的戰略取向,實質目的並非如宣傳般理想,背後實際隱藏權力競逐的企圖,終將面臨主權爭議、國際大國壓力等現實考驗。
    China has vigorously realized its national strategic goal of open and reform-to enhance national strength with money-since the beginning of the reform and opening up in 1978. China has turned its economic power into national strength in the process of rapid economic growth. After the end of the cold war, the world situation has been dominated by economic development instead of military confrontation and the “new security concept” has been formed. Following the principle of“going from the near to the distant and starting from the easy to the difficult” and adopting a national strategy based on concept of “friendliness being conducive to business success,” China has implemented “good-neighborly diplomacy” in neighboring countries, especially in Southeast Asia, and created a favorable and peaceful environment for business. Beijing intended to confront a policy of containment imposed by the US and Japan and enhanced its capacity of comprehensive security by attracting small and medium ASEAN member countries as a big economic magnet and making the most of advantages it gained from the agreement of “China-ASEAN Free Trade Area.” To maintain bilateral relationship with ASEAN countries, China has strengthened its diplomatic relations with them by implementing economic and political exchanges in accordance with “new security concept.” Furthemore, China has played a leading role in the development of various fields by pushing ahead cooperative projects in the region, such as China-ASEAN (10+1) Free Trade Area, security cooperation, business development and energy exploitation, as well as increasing others’ economic dependence on Beijing.
    As a result, Beijing has achieved success in its ASEAN diplomacy. Politically, China has closer ties with countries of the Southeast Asia through building partnership with various parties and participating bilateral or multilateral meetings. China was the first nation to sign “Joint Declaration on Strategic Partnership for Peace and Prosperity” in 2003.
    Economically, the implementation of “China-ASEAN Free Trade Area” in 2010 will create the world’s biggest free trade area with a population of about 17 billion. An Asian version of Monroe Doctrine led by China has gradually been formed and edged out the presence of the US and Japan in the region when China established umbilical connections with ASEAN nations by developing “economic community.”
    In terms of security interests, China settled most of territorial disputes with neighboring countries by promoting “new security concept “and implementing “good-neighborly diplomacy,”. In the sovereignty disputes over the South China Sea, “shelving disputes and going in for joint development” was used by China as a policy of goodwill. Beijing has been intent on building an image of a responsible big power rising peacefully by way of establishing a mutual trust mechanism for military exchanges and joining multilateral security talks.
    Strategically, Beijing has acquired high-tech military weapons and equipment made by the former Soviet Union to struggle for post-cold war sea and land supremacy. Chinese achievements in space and satellite are quite dazzling. With a more powerful blue water navy, China hopes to extend its sovereignty and military presence in the South China Sea and Southeast Asia and have more bargaining chips in international diplomacy. In addition, since a rising China consumes more energy, China determines to safeguard sea-lanes, so as to assure energy security.
    Despite bringing up “good-neighborly diplomacy” based on“ new security concept”,China’s real strategic intention behind this is to compete for power. Therefore, the concept is expected to face many challenges, such as sovereignty disputes and international pressures.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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