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    題名: 中國跨國公司對外直接投資區位選擇之研究
    其他題名: The study of location choice : foreign direct investment of China's multinational corporation
    作者: 劉惠媛;Liu, Hui-yuan
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    李志強;Li, Chi-keung
    關鍵詞: 跨國公司;對外直接投資;區位選擇;Multinational Corporation;Foreign Direct Investment;Location Choice
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:27:26 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 在經濟全球化的現代,跨國公司是促進經濟發展的重要媒介;對於跨國公司而言,為達其資源全球合理配置之目的,必在全球範圍內尋求和選擇能使其利潤最大化的各項職能之地點,此即區位選擇。
    為使對外直接投資能讓中國企業獲致最大利潤,中國傾其全力積極培育跨國公司以壯大其對外直接投資之規模與成效。截至2006年6月底,中國對外直接投資累計淨額636.4億美元,中國在境外創辦各類獨資、合資和加工企業累計9,900多家,分布在全球近170個國家和地區,投資區位遍布全球。中國的對外直接投資在全球排名已攀升至第17位;從2001年到2005年,中國的對外投資每年的成長率是26%、25%、110%、78%、80%,這說明近年來中國跨國公司的對外直接投資正在穩定、快速發展。
    在以開發資源進而達成國家整體戰略、以擴大出口、以獲得先進技術和管理經驗、以利用外資及以獲取充分訊息等動機下,中國跨國公司大步跨出其對外直接投資之步伐。分析中國企業對外直接投資之特點,包括有投資方式以”跨國併購”為發展趨勢、投資區位以亞洲為主、海外併購行業集中並呈現橫向併購的特徵、民營企業成為中國企業海外併購的新興力量。
    中國的家電行業是市場化程度最高的行業之一,市場競爭非常激烈,因此家電行業代表了中國許多行業未來的發展狀況;故本論文以海爾及TCL為案例,落實此研究之實務面。
    海爾的對外直接投資選擇”先難後易”之原則,先進入已開發國家,再進入開發中國家;TCL則採取”先易後難”之原則,先進入開發中國家,再進入已開發國家。海爾在全球佈署生產中心、研發中心、訊息中心、營銷中心及金融中心,且各依其特性選擇了適合的區位;TCL國際化的佈局分為兩部份;在歐美走併購之路,在新興市場則打自主品牌。
    研究中國跨國公司對外直接投資之區位選擇發現:資源開發型產業可投資於拉丁美洲及非洲地區;勞動密集型產業可投資於東南亞、拉丁美洲及東歐部份開發中國家;資本密集型產業可投資於東歐、拉丁美洲及亞太等較已開發的國家和地區;知識與技術密集型產業則可投資於日本、美國與西歐等已開發國家和地區。
    In the economy-globalization age, multinational corporations are the important interface to thrive the economic growth. To multinational corporations, for the purpose of achieving resources allocation adequately, it’s the best solution to select the optimized location to generate maximum benefit as well as functionality. It’s what we called it as location choice.
    To achieve the result of most benefit coming from the foreign investment to Chinese enterprises, China government is doing it’s best to develop more multinational corporations to enlarge the scale as well as effectiveness regarding foreign direct investment. Till the end of June in 2006, the net foreign direct investment was accumulated around $63.6B. Those private owned companies, join-venture and OEM businesses out of China but encouraged by China government are over 9900 in total. They are located all over the world and across 170 countries. The foreign direct investment regarding China is ranking as 17th, the growth rate from 2001 to 2005 are 26%, 25%, 110%, 78% and 80% separately. It also means the foreign direct investment regarding China is growing quickly and stably.
    Deploying strategy to develop resources, increase the export weight, get more advanced technologies as well as management skills, utilize foreign investment and deliver enough information as the 1st priority, those Chinese enterprises had been stepped out to become the real multinational corporations as well.
    The characteristic for those Chinese funded multinational corporations in terms of foreign direct investment, they are mainly focusing on acquisition and most are concentrated in Asia Pacific. The private enterprises had become the key to be the new power to implement the overseas acquisition.
    Electronic fields are one of the most customized markets in China, competition between one another is aggressively, could be thought as the benchmark for the remaining fields for the future development in China. Based on this, the paper will take Haier and TCL to have further investigation as well.
    The principle of foreign direct investment which Haier took is going to the difficult part first then to easy part later on. Moving into developed countries first then following under-developed countries. TCL took the opposite strategy compared with Haier. Haier set up global design center, manufacturing bases, financial center, IT, sales branches all over the world, most importantly is they are located at what they are especially strong on the selected field. TCL divided the globalization strategy into two parts-acquired other companies in European and North American markets and built up the new brand for their own in under-develop regions.
    According to the research, most types of resources development enterprises are better to have it done in Latin American or Africa. Labor-intensive could be further driven in South East Asia, Latin American and some of East Europe countries which are under developing. Capital intensive businesses are suitable to be deployed in East Europe, Latin American and Asia Pacific for those developed regions. Hi-tech and knowledgeable businesses are adequate to have the investment in Japan, North American and West Europe which has developed quite well.
    顯示於類別:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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