中國的人民陪審員制度主要繼受於前蘇聯模式，卻又不完整沿襲，加上政治體制、文化背景、國民知識水平不均等因素，實施70年來，此項制度在運行過程中不可避免地出現許多問題，比如：地方人民陪審員參審率較低，陪而不審、審而不議；在人民陪審員的構成上，黨政機關和事業單位人員所占比例過高，影響了人民陪審員的廣泛代表性等。由於以上種種因素，引起大陸學界對實施陪審制度的探討，包括其功能定位、職責，甚至該不該實施等等。到現在，大陸的人民陪審制度尚在「摸著石頭過河」的階段，而中共中央似乎將人民陪審制度的實施作為實踐胡錦濤公平正義社會的主張的重要手段。 司法機關為中共執政權威象徵，將人民引進法庭參與審判，對中共及人民均是一種挑戰。本論文首要介紹公民陪審對先進國家司法之意義，再舉出兩大法系（即大陸法系與英美法系）實施陪審制度深具代表性國家──德國及美國，介紹其公民陪審的制度設計及實施概況，對陪審制造成具體概念；再透過調查數據，檢視中國實施人民陪審的現況，發現中國人民陪審員制度設計特殊之處。 People’s assessor system of China has mainly followed the pattern of the former Soviet Union, but slightly changing its form. Thus due to the difference in political system、cultural background and the level of citizen education, over the 70 years of practice, many problems occurred. For example, regional assessors were unwilling to participate; they neither took part in the judgments nor make any comment on the trial. Other than that, the assessors were mostly made up of government related organization, which affects the extensiveness of the representation. Even until now, people’s assessor system in China hasn’t got the best out of its system. The China government tried carrying out the people’s assessor system by means of practicing Hu Jintao’s “Fair and Just Society”. The judiciary has been a symbol of authority for the China government. Allowing people to participate in rendering justice will be a big challenge for China. This article firstly introduces the significance of assessor system to a developed country, then giving example of two countries - Germany and the United States, which represents the civil law system and common law system. In the essay, it discussed how the above two countries carried out their people’s assessor system, and through these statistic data, conferring the status quo of people’s assessor system in China and the unique plotting of it.