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    Title: 中共全國人民代表大會立法權改革之研究
    Other Titles: The reform of lawmaking function of national people's congress in People's Republic of China
    Authors: 陳薪禾;Chen, Ho-hsin
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    潘錫堂;Pan, His-tang
    Keywords: 全國人民代表大會;National People’s Congress of PRC;立法;立法改革;Lawmaking;Lawmaking Function
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:27:08 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 依中共現有的國家機器結構,人民代表大會是人民管理國家的機構。人大和西方國家代議制度概念是截然不同,中共認為人民代表大會制度是實現其人民民主專政的政權組織形式,不同於西方國家的三權分立,亦不同於前蘇聯的「蘇維埃」。
    中共的人民代表大會制度在歷經了文革時期的破壞後,使大陸人民及領導階層皆謀求一個健全的法制和一個更好的監督體制。而改革開放後,中共領導人認識必須強化法制建設,以利經濟發展和鞏固經改成果,並利規範改革後的各種經濟與社會生活。
      中共十五大報告明確指出:「我國經濟體制改革的深入和社會主義現代化建設跨越世紀的發展,在堅持四項基本原則的前提下,繼續推進政治體制改革,進一步跨大社會主義民主,健全社會主義體制,依法治國,建設社會主義法治國家。」 這種方針也表現在人大制度發展上,必須對人大進行改革,透過加強人大的立法、監督職能,使決策更能表現出民主化、科學化。
      人大制度變遷過程中,立法決策的重心逐漸由黨與國務院向常委會的內部組織移動,其立法功能的強化、組織分化及制度化程度的提昇,象徵中共政治發展走向制度化的道路,制度將中共的統治手段規範化,並對領導階層形成一定的制約,雖不能簡單地等同於民主化,但有利日後民主化的進程。
      全國人大由於受到了自身理論、組織、制度與運作原則的限制,加以中共一黨專政的政治運作,使得其決策和職權的行使,都受到了中國共產黨的制約,而始終無法如西方的國會那樣,擁有國家最高權力機構的「實權」,但全國人大作為中國政治民主化起步的一個主要平臺,已經成為聯結民主理念與憲政實踐的國家根本制度。如果全國人大能夠變得更加獨立,那麼它的改革和發展就不僅會給中國的政治生活帶來新的規則和程式,而且會從總體上影響政治決策,建立一套能夠適應內外環境的持續變遷的體制。
    In China''s governing system,National People''s is the institute for the public to participate in the decision-making process of government affairs. China tries to use this mechanism to realize its “autocratic ruling system with democratic-style” which is different from the three power separated system of Western countries or the“Soviet system” of former Russia.
    It is clearly stated in China''s 15th National People''s Congress report that political reform is needed and China should expand socialism democracy to become a ruling-by-law socialism country. Under this principle, China pushes the innovation of People''s Congress to be more democratic and institutionalized. Although China''s efforts on reinforcing its lawmaking function and institutionalization cannot be seem as democratization, they are still beneficial to its process.
    One thing worth noticing is that the real function of People''s Congress is still restricted by various elements. Both of its decision-making and enforcement abilities are confined by the Communist Party and cannot be completely independent.
    In conclusion, People''s Congress, as the main platform of China''s democratic process, has become a fundamental system that connects democratic ideas and constitutional mechanism. Should it become more independent in the future, it will not only bring new style and formula to China''s politics but also affects its decision-making fundamentally.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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