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    Title: 青藏鐵路的經濟價值與政治效益
    Other Titles: The economic value and political influence of the qinghai-tibet railway.
    Authors: 徐伯卿;Hsu, Po-ching
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    李志強;Li, Chi-keung
    Keywords: 拉薩;格爾木;區域經濟;市場經濟;分離主義;Lhasa;Goulmd;regional economy;Market economy;separatism
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:27:06 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 1949年中華人民共和國建立,卻遲至1952年始完成解放西藏,主要原因在於歷來西藏與中國境內並無公路連接,遑論鐵路。中國境內號稱擁有全世界運輸量第一的鐵路網,唯獨西藏自治區是「鐵路空白區」,歷代國家領導人無不期望任內完成鐵路進西藏的艱鉅任務。
    毛澤東任內排除萬難與3000名工人捐軀後開通青藏公路,成為中國西藏間唯一寒冬不封閉的交通捷徑。但有生之年,毛澤東仍無緣一睹鐵路進藏。鄧小平任內,窮其國力,1979年僅完成青海省段鐵路(青藏鐵路第一期),依然無法突破多年凍土等工程難題。然而,鄧小平大力主張改革開放,使中國經濟突飛猛進,進而開啟江澤民「西部大開發」國家計劃之落實。
    財政國力大幅崛起的中國,青藏鐵路青海段鐵路完成後21年,鐵路得以復工往西藏前進。
    2006年,胡錦濤任內青藏鐵路第二期正式進入西藏首府拉薩市,來自北京、上海、廣州、成都的火車,終結西藏無鐵路的歷史,並引發全球媒體報導熱潮與各方討論聲浪。
    西藏與中國因為地理隔絕、歷史風土差異,加以帝國主義時期英俄列強勢力介入,以及中共解放後大肆破壞藏人習俗等因素,迫使藏人孕育分離主義,精神領袖達賴喇嘛出走於印度成立西藏流亡政府。青藏鐵路進入西藏,讓北京政府更易於掌控西藏,並引發全球藏人與親近藏人團體之抗議聲浪。
    西藏歷來均倚賴北京中央高額經費補助以維持經濟,青藏鐵路完工,經濟效益立現,各方遊客大量湧入,年度接待旅客數量甚至高於全區總人口數。運輸效益、邊境貿易、以及日後鐵路延伸支線,甚至區域內跨國鐵路遠景,這條打破多項世界紀錄的鐵路幹線,已逐漸產生影響力。
    As commonly known The People''s Republic of China was established in 1949, somehow it began to complete the steps of liberating Tibet issues later until 1952, the most main reason lies in - there is no any highway to connect Tibet and China nor the railway connection. Transportation within the People’s Republic of China is known as the world’s highest volume railway network, however, only the Tibet Autonomous Region is an outsider- it’s truly a "railway blank space", actually during their duration of the previous country leaders all expect to complete such a heavy duty - which is the launching of railway inside Tibet.
    For the duration of Mao Zedong, he made much effort and overcame all the difficulties to start developing the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, almost 3,000 builders sacrificed their life for this, and finally Qinghai-Tibet Railway became the only transportation shortcut between China and Tibet which maintain no closing day even during the severe winter. Somehow during the life of Mao Zedong, he has no chance to witness this great constructional railway to enter into Tibet. Following the duration of Deng Xiaoping, they have barely completed the section of Qinghai Province Railway until 1979 (An initial phase of Qinghai-Tibet Railway) although they endeavored their national strength; the perennial tundra issues still remain unsolved. However, Deng Xiaoping hardly demands the policy of reform and open, these surely enable a large increase in China’s economics, and furthermore these open up the chance to fulfill the country plan of "China Western Development" by Jiang Zemin.
    China, a world power with a large increase in financial and nation strength these years, finally the developing steps of Qinghai-Tibet Railway could therefore go heading to Tibet, after 21 years later of the completion of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway -Qinghai section.
    In 2006, during the duration of Hu Jintao, the second phase of Qinghai-Tibet Railway officially enter into Tibet’s capital Lhasa, multidirectional trains which come from Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu end the very long history of non- railway Tibet, and also this initiate the global media report and discussion, accordingly.
    Tibet and China are very different because the natural geography isolation and the historical local customs difference, plus the factors of power intervention from England / Russia during the imperialism time, and also the damage of Tibetan’s customs from the Communist Party of China, all of these forced Tibetan to breed the separatism, their spiritual leader Dalai Lama fled to exile in India and established the
    Central Tibetan Administration. The entry of Qinghai-Tibet Railway enable Beijing government easier to central control of Tibet, this provoked much remonstrant discussions from global Tibetan and those associations which close to Tibetan.
    In the past, Tibet normally relied on the central high quota funds subsidy from Beijing to maintain their economy, however, after the completion of Qinghai-Tibet Railway the economic efficiency revealed immediately; massive multidirectional tourists come into Tibet, the annual received passengers quantity even to be higher than the entire area total population. Basically the transportation benefit, the frontier trade, as well as the railway’s extension branch in the near future, even the regional cross-country’s transnational vision, this railway line which already breaks many world’s record, would be definitely an influential power gradually in the future.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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