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    Title: 中國大陸農業政策變遷之研究(1978-2004)
    Other Titles: The study of the changing on agricultural policy in mainland China
    Authors: 沈岱樺;Shen, Dai-hua
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    陳德昇;Chen, De-sheng
    Keywords: 決策;農業政策;一號文件;三農問題;the decision of making;agricultural policy;No.1 document;three dimensional rural issues
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:26:46 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 八○年代初中共推動農業改革,並自1982年起連續五年皆以農業為主題發出五個「一號文件」,不僅是中共改革政策與意識形態的突破,且由於改革績效彰顯進而啟動中共全面經濟改革。時至2004年,中共再度以農業作為年度「一號文件」,反映了「三農」(農業、農民、農村)問題在歷經近二十年的改革開放後再成為中共經濟、政治與社會的焦點議題,其所反映的決策與政經意涵值得賦予更大的關注。
    本論文主要探討影響中國農業改革政策變遷之因素,尤其是八O年代中共連續下發五個一號文件,主題皆為農業政策,不僅顯示農民自主意識與市場法則促成中共農業決策重大讓步與改變,亦是中國農業問題深重的產物。此種由下而上的決策形成對中共專政體制運作具有鮮明之政治意涵。此外,中共2004年一號文件亦是以農業政策為主軸,再次顯示「三農」(農業、農村、農民)問題的嚴重性已引發中共決策當局的警覺,而須以黨的重要文件與指令落實農業政策。
    基本而言,2004年「一號文件」的提出固然有助於緩解當前「三農」問題的矛盾,但仍只是階段性效果,而非治本之道。主因仍在於大陸農業資源稟賦有限,尤其是人口多、人均耕地少、教育水準低、參與市場化進程的侷限性,皆無可避免導致農民邊緣化的命運。因此,期待下發「一號文件」,並在短期內急於求成解決「三農」問題是不現實的。
    Since 80’s, PRC had paid a lot of attention on agricultural revolutions that it had made agriculture the main item of its policies for five years since 1982. The efforts are not only the breakthrough of PRC’s ideology and policies, but also the turning points that urge PRC to reform its economy on all aspects. In 2004, we could still find out that PRC again make agriculture its priority for its policy. That also means that after about twenty years’ efforts to revolute, the problems of ‘agriculture, peasants, and the rural area’ are again becoming the theme focus of china’s economy, politic, and society. The following concerns of policies deserve our attention.
    This thesis mainly discusses about the major factors that cause the changes of PRC’s agricultural policies. Especially, the 80s’ five documents all make agriculture its priorities, which show that the peasantries’ conscious of decision making on their own and the principle of free market push china to make the changes and compromises. The policies that form from bottom up send the important political message toward PRC’s autocratic regime. Besides, the document which focuses on agricultural policies in 2004 means again that the problems of agriculture, peasants, and rural areas arouse the authority’s attention. So it has to make a single document to implement the policies.
    Basically, the No 1. document in 2004 does solve some problems of the“three dimensional rural issues”. However, it would only last temporarily, it cannot completely solve the problems. The reasons are the resources deficiency, large population, lands deficiency, low education, and limitation of market evolution. All above make PRC’s peasants unavoidable to be marginalized. That is to say, looking forward to the next No 1. document to solve the“three dimensional rural issues”problems completely in a short time is not realistic.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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