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    Title: 中國大陸人口非法移入臺灣之影響與防制之道
    Other Titles: The impacts of illegal immigrats from mainland China and the ways to prevention
    Authors: 楊聰福;Yang, Tsung-fu
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    潘錫堂;Pan, His-tang
    Keywords: 非法移民;人口偷渡;人口走私;人口販運;人口販運被害人;人蛇集團;illegal immigration;human stowaways;human smuggling;human trafficking;human trafficking victims;human trafficking ring
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:26:08 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近十餘年來,國際社會對於非法移民議題極其重視,尤其有關偷渡及人口販運所衍生之社會、政治、經濟、衛生及人權保障問題,更受到矚目與關切。我國自1987年解嚴及同年11月2日政府宣布,基於傳統倫理親情及人道立場的考慮,開始接受臺灣地區民眾赴大陸地區申請後,長期隔絕對立的兩岸關係,便起了歷史性的急劇變化,民間更興起了一股前所未有的大陸熱。兩岸的互動關係與各項交流,已攸關到臺灣地區全體人民的安危與福祉。
    偷渡行為即係向被偷渡國的主權完整、入境准駁-移民管制、國家管轄-國境安檢和邊界控制、內部秩序-犯罪防制和社會控管等,進行嚴峻挑戰。非法移民,尤其是人口販運問題之直接、間接或衍生之問題,均為國際社會所共同關切。如何解決,極待思考因應。我國由於四面環海,海岸線綿長,進出海活動頻仍,少數不法份子,盡各種掩蓋、矇騙能事,趁機夾藏槍械、毒品及進行偷渡入境活動,影響臺灣地區治安、國家安全至鉅。
    臺灣地區解嚴至今,依各治安機關查緝大陸地區人民非法入境人數統計資料,時負查緝任務之警察機關緝獲大陸地區人民非法入境人數達到高峰,其中又以1993年所緝獲的5,633人為最多,1990年緝獲5,626人居次,非法入境緝獲數逐年降低,然隨之而來的問題是到底潛藏在國內之偷渡犯黑數有多少?又以合法方式入境之大陸地區人民卻也逐年增加。
    兩岸開放社會交流後迄至2008年9月,兩岸婚姻公證驗證數29萬5,665人,結婚登記數則為25萬9,404人。以合法方式入境之大陸地區人民從事與許可目的不符之活動或工作者,內政部警政署自2000年起強力取締,各類型含賣淫,本項資料與非法入境人數互有因果關係。至潛藏在國內之偷渡犯黑數,國內學者曾有相關之研究,在其研究推估中,參與者有警察機關、海岸巡防機關、法務部調查局、移民業者、媒體記者、仲介業者,其推估原則均主張應以查獲數為基礎,推估之比率各有所本,其所得黑數亦各有不同。迄今為止,走私仍無法完全避免,偷渡亦時有發生,以2008年為例,緝獲案件已大幅滑落,起而代之者為以合法方式入境(含探親、探病、奔喪、團聚、觀光、漁工、虛偽結婚等),再從事與許可原因不符之活動或工作,卻應運而生諸多社會問題。期能透過本研究,發覺問題,並探討如何有效解決。
    在對策方面,可運用傳播媒體,加強社會教育宣導,促請全民增加共識與配合,除減少色情及勞動市場之需求外,並能協助預防、檢舉、查緝人口偷渡及販運犯罪;強化執法人員之法律、查緝、偵訊及辨識等專業訓練,提升檢審對於人口偷渡及販運問題之處理效率;在兼顧人權保障及維護國家利益下,檢討現有相關法制,修增訂必要之法令規範,提供執法之有效依據;透過國際合作途徑,建立情資合作交換關係,提供專業訓練及協助,結合國際組織力量,並運用NGO及非營利組織等私領域機制,除打擊人口偷渡及販運犯罪外,並提升對人口販運受害者之人道處遇及相關保護和協助;針對人口偷渡和販運之來源國或社會,運用政策工具,提供相關援助,加強「治本」工作,減少或消除人口偷渡和販運之結構性或根本性因素;加強人口偷渡和販運問題之資料蒐集、研究與分析,掌握及因應犯罪情勢之發展與變化,適時提出解決方案,整合政府部門人力與資源,並設置專責機制,職司情蒐研析、查緝與辨識人口販運之不法情事。
    本研究藉各國防制非法移民之對策與經驗、大陸人民來臺之質量化分析、大陸地區人民非法移入臺灣之影響;我國現有法制面、機制面、執行面及應強化之防制作為等,以達杜絕不法偷渡情事,維護社會安定與國家安全及遏止假藉合法方式入境後行方不明或從事與許可目的不符之活動或工作,以導正兩岸交流秩序,進而達到維護社會安定與國家安全之使命。
    For more than ten years, the international community has been seriously looking into the issue of illegal immigration, especially the social, political, economic, health, and human rights protection problems brought about by smuggling and human trafficking. After martial law was lifted in Taiwan in 1987, November 2nd of that same year saw the government announcing that, keeping in mind the traditional family and moral considerations, it was accepting applications for Taiwan citizens to go to Mainland China. Cross-strait relationships, which have been on opposing ends for a long time, underwent an unprecedented change; people took an interest in Mainland China that was never seen before. Cross-strait interrelationships and various exchanges have long influenced the security and prosperity of the whole Taiwan citizenry.

    Stowaway behavior has become a serious challenge to the comprehensiveness of a country’s sovereignty as well as entry acceptance and denial (immigration system), national jurisdiction (border checking and control), and internal order (crime prevention and social control and management). Illegal immigration, especially the direct, indirect, and extended problems of human trafficking, is a major concern of the international community; more thought should be given to what can be done to solve these problems. Because Taiwan is surrounded by seas and oceans, the long coastline and the frequent maritime activities make possible the smuggling and trading of weapons, drugs, and human beings by illegal elements, adversely affecting peace and order as well as national security.

    From the time martial law was lifted, based on statistical data from various law enforcement agencies regarding illegal entry by Mainland Chinese citizens into Taiwan, the number of illegal entries has reached its peak. The number of illegal entries from Mainland China was the highest in 1993 with 5,633 people and 1990 with 5,626 people. With the number of illegal immigrants decreasing, the question that arises is what is the real, unaccounted number of stowaways coming into Taiwan? There is also the fact that the number of Mainland Chinese citizens entering Taiwan legally has been increasing annually.

    From the time Taiwan and Mainland China opened their doors to social exchanges to September of 2008, intermarriages between Taiwan and Mainland Chinese citizens have numbered a total of 295,665 people, out of which 259,404 have already officially registered. For citizens who have entered the country legally but have undertaken activities or work not in keeping with the purpose for their entry, the National Police Agency of the Ministry of Interior have stepped up on clamping down various types of illegal activities, including prostitution; there is definitely a cause and effect relationship between this information and the number of people entering the country illegally. As for the unidentified number of stowaways, a relevant research was undertaken by academics in this country, which was participated in by police agencies, the coast guard, the Bureau of Investigation of the Ministry of Justice, private immigration companies, media reporters, and brokers. The result revealed several versions of the estimated percentages because, although they were based on the actual figures obtained, the calculating method and ratio each participating party used was different; hence, the numbers from different parties are different. As of the present, it has not been possible for smuggling to be completely eradicated; incidents of stowing away still occur. In 2008, for example, arrest cases have gone down significantly. This has led to the making use of legal means of entering the country (including family visits, visits to sick family members, attending funerals, reuniting with family, travel, fishing labor, fraudulent marriages, etc.) and then proceeding to indulge in activities and work not in keeping with the purpose of their entry into Taiwan, which bring about many social problems. It is hoped that the study can find where the problem lies and explore possible ways of solving it.

    Countermeasures can be implemented with help from the broadcast media disseminating information as well as reinforcing the message in social education, promoting a sense of unity and consensus among the citizenry. Aside from reducing the demands of the prostitution and labor markets, assistance can also be increased in areas such as preventing, informing on, and arresting human smuggling and trafficking criminals. The government can enhance training for law enforcement personnel in the areas of law, investigation, interrogation, identification, and other professional tasks to improve the efficiency with which these personnel handle human smuggling and trafficking. Taking into consideration the protection of basic human rights as well as the safeguarding of national interests, government should review the relevant legal system, amending and drafting necessary laws and regulations to provide a much more effective basis for legal implementation. Through international cooperation, it should establish international relationships wherein intelligence and resources are shared and exchanged, professional training and assistance are provided, participate in joint efforts by the international community, and use NGOs, non-profit organizations, and other private agencies. Aside from battling human stowaway and trafficking, government should provide humane handling as well as protection and assistance to the victims of these crimes. Using its policy tools, aid should be provided to the countries or societies which are sources of human stowaways and trafficking, reinforcing the work of “solving the problem at its roots” and reducing or eliminating the structural or basic factors contributing to them. Furthermore, government should also improve its information gathering capabilities, research and analysis, and staying on top and responding to the developments and changes of criminal trends, coming up with appropriate solutions by integrating manpower and resources within the government, and establishing special agencies responsible for gathering and studying information as well as investigating and identifying criminal dealings connected to human trafficking.

    The study looks at the countermeasures and experiences various nations have for the prevention of illegal immigration, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the arrival of Mainland Chinese citizens in Taiwan, and the effects of illegal entry by Mainland Chinese citizens into Taiwan; our country’s current legal, organizational, and implementation aspects, as well as how to reinforce preventive measures to eliminate illegal stowaways. This way, we will be able to maintain social stability and national security as well as stop people who have entered the country legally from disappearing or undertaking activities and works not consistent with the purpose of their stay in Taiwan, which may cause disorder in cross-strait exchanges.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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